1. Explain when the Nuremberg Code was established and what it advocated. 2. What is The Declaration of Helsinki? 3. How does Deadly Deception illustrate the trust that society and citizens place in symbols of authority? 4. An explicit requirement of the Tuskegee Study was that the subjects not receive available treatment for a debilitating disease, a clear violation of "Do No Harm". Would any study involving human subjects that violated normal medical practice necessarily be unethical. 5. The Tuskegee victims were not informed-in fact they were misinformed-about the nature of the study in which they were participants. A basic guideline for human research, specified in both the Nuremberg Code and the Belmont Report, is the requirement of informed consent. What would have constituted informed consent in the case of the Tuskegee study? If such informed consent had been obtained from the subjects, would this remove all questions about whether the study was ethical? 6. In what sense were the premises and the practices of the Tuskegee study racist? An important question to explore when examining whether the standards being applied are those of the time the action took place, and if not, whether this should affect and judgment about the ethics of the situation? 7. Eunice Rivers, The African-American nurse who played a vital role by befriending theTuskegee Study participants and assuring their cooperation, has justified her support for the project in terms of the fact that the attention that she and other medical personnel gave to the men was more than a non-enrolled, poor, Macon Country resident was likely to receive. If you had been in her place, do you think you would have come to the same conclusion with regard to the ethical choices available to you? 8. Ordinarily, one would not think of the media as the proper instrument for enforcing public morality. They had a role here, but should they have? 9. The political reaction to the Tuskegee revelations was largely responsible for establishing the committee that wrote the Belmont Report, Which set up guidelines have been the basis for regulations, usually enforced by human research subject planets, at most public and private institutions that conduct such research. If this likely to assure that all future research of human subjects will be conducted in a manner that raises no ethical concerns? 10. The Belmont Report proposes three criteria for he evaluation of human subjects research. What are these three criteria? In what way does the Tuskegee Study fail to conform to each of these criteria? Be explicit and thorough! 11. Why is it that the social status of the subjects may sometimes create the perception that ethics is somehow elastic? Give examples from your readings from the Nuremberg Code, Deadly Deception, and the article that you researched.
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