Philosophy Question

Philosophy Question

Each answer will be worth 7 points to be done in THREE typewritten pages (at least TWO if you want to get a decent grade) so its a major essay for this class based on our texts (required: 2 references at least in each answer), Announcements (you may quote any with numbering) or the appendices to our texts.

1. in Book III Aristotle explains essentially how the Virtues (which are states in RELATION TO both passions/feelings AND actions) require to be understood so that the ACTIONS which people carry out and on whose basis you are judged (with the addition of understanding through them your thoughts or intentions) may be responsible and hence imputable to the AGENT either in praise or blame.

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That understood, explain the sense in which PRUDENCE (you must reach out then to book VI and the appropriate chapters already discussed, from 1-9 and especially 5 and 7 and wherever prudence is characterized) links with Virtue (habitual dispositions to channel one’s DESIRES) through its connection with WISHING (which sets the goal for it), explaining how given a virtuous GOAL that would satisfy a desire (such as doing a just deed in relation to someone else: dealing fairly in an interpersonal relation say) prudence has to intervene through voluntary deliberation which figures out, thinks, calculates (its a matter of “ratio-ed” proportional CALCULATiON in planning) in order to complete a virtuous action: as example either a temperate just or brave action. Explain how action therefore LINKS, connects, virtue (as defined in book II) and prudence (as defined in book VI).

2.Explain how the “MIND” as a modern version of WHO and WHAT we are distinguishes the modern self from the soul concentrating on the various lectures and announcements that describe it (and equate it with Descartes’ “Cogito” or “I think”) and bring also the self-constitution of it in Meditations 1-2 (SHORT of the Wax example to be left out; also before any consideration of the existence of ANY GOD to also be excluded from the answer), especially what it means to “think” and how it connects to auto-determination (the individual self deciding what constitutes the truth of things through the evidence that accords with self-existence) and how it leads to a “moral” sense of the experience (problematic: critical, like a crisis) of “others” and the demand to consider them as persons (you must study what the Announcements say in that respect). How is the “mind” related to “reality” as found and experienced by NATURAL SCIENCE (as inaugurated in the Copernical/Galilean revolution)? How is science as objective knowledge of the real something which the MIND is committed to as a modern “subject”? What is it to be a modern subject which is dedicated among other things to scientific (clarify that) truth?