soc 225, final quiz berkeley college Introduction to Psychology

Question 1

 

 

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 Learning is best defined as

    a.   any change in behavior.

    b.   a relatively permanent change in behavior due to past experience.

    c.   a permanent change in behavior due to physical development.

    d.   any change in behavior caused by repeating a response.

 

 

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 2

 

 

Learning includes changes in behavior as a result of

  a. motivation.

  b. maturation.

  c. experience.

  d. fatigue.

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 3

 

 

Ivan Pavlov has been credited with the initial discovery of

  a. operant conditioning.

  b. reinforcement.

  c. classical conditioning.

 d. vicarious conditioning.

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 4

 

 

Children tend to imitate the violence portrayed in

    a.   live and televised professional wrestling matches.

    b.   rap music.

    c.   video games.

    d.   all of these.

 

 

 

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 5

 

 

Which of the following statements concerning television and

video game effects on aggression is TRUE?

a. Television and video game violence has little effect on permanent behavior.

b. Television and video game violence causes violent behavior.

c. Television and video game violence can make aggression more likely.

d. After watching television or playing a violent video game, only young children show an increase in aggression, not adolescents

    and adults.

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 6

 

 

The term personality refers to

    a.   the hereditary aspects of one’s emotional nature.

    b.   unique and enduring behavior patterns.

    c.   favorable and unfavorable personal characteristics.

    d.   charisma, character, or temperament.

 

 

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 7

 

 

All your ideas, perceptions, and feelings about who you are make up your

 a. superego

 b. id

 c. reality principle

 d. self-concept.

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 8

 

 

Which of the following theories focuses on the inner workings of personality,

especially internal conflicts and struggles?

  a.  humanistic theories

  b.  psychodynamic theories 

  c.  behavioristic theories

  d.  trait theories

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 9

 

 

The theories that place importance on the external environment and on the effects of conditioning and learning are the ________ theories of personality.

a.  humanistic

b.  psychodynamic

c.  behavioristic

            d.  cognitive

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 10

 

 

 Freud became interested in the study of personality when he realized that

 

    a.   his patients lacked physical causes for their problems.

    b.   the treatment of psychological disorders was more advanced than those for  physical disorders.

    c.   many of his patients were faking symptoms.

  d.   no comprehensive theories of the mind were widely accepted.

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points   

Question 11

 

 

According to Freud, the use of mental processes to deny, distort, or otherwise block out sources of

threat to the ego and anxiety are referred to as

 

  a.  the pleasure principle.

  b.  self-efficacy.

  c.  congruence.

  d.  defense mechanisms.

 

 

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 12

 

 

According to humanistic psychologists, to be happy, we need to feel that our behavior accurately expresses who we are; that is, ________ is vital for healthy functioning.

a. being authentic

b. incongruence

c. fixation

           d. alienation

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 13

 

 

The psychiatrist that first proposed that people are either introverts or extroverts was

 a. Abraham Maslow.

 b. Carl Jung.

 c. Sigmund Freud.

 d. B. F. Skinner

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 14

 

 

Rogers emphasized that to maximize our potentials, we must

 

 a.   block, deny, or distort experiences that are threatening to our self-image.

 b.   care more about our looks

 c.   be true to ourselves, even if we have to ignore the feelings of others.

 d.   accept information about ourselves as honestly as possible.

 

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 15

 

 

According to behavioristic theorists, barriers to personal  growth include ________, while psychoanalytic

theorists view ________ as barriers to personal growth.

  a.   unhealthy traits; maladaptive habits

  b.   conditions of worth; unhealthy traits

  c.   maladaptive habits; unconscious conflicts

  d.   conditions of worth; incongruence

 

 

 

 

 

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 16

 

 

According to research, the best way to overcome shyness is to 

 a.   enhance social skills.

 b.   lower anxiety by accepting that shyness is an inherited problem.    

 c.   learn to enjoy solitude.

 d.  change your style of dress.

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 17

 

 

What percentage of American adults suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder in any given year?

    a.   5 percent

    b.   10 percent

    c.   25 percent

    d.   40 percent

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 18

 

 

The scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and development of mental, emotional, and  behavioral disorders and the disorders themselves is called

a. psychosis.

b. neurosis.

c. psychopathology.

d. neuropathology.

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 19

 

 

Imaginary sensations, such as seeing, hearing, or smelling things that do not exist in the real world, are known as

a.  delusions.

b.  illusions.

c.  hallucinations.

d.  paradoxical intentions.

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 20

 

 

Regarding adjustment disorders and anxiety disorders, which of the following statements is FALSE?

a. The outward symptoms of adjustment disorders and anxiety disorders are similar.

b. Rest, sedation, and counseling are often sufficient to relieve the symptoms of adjustment disorders.

c. People with adjustment disorders are faking and generate their own misery.

d. The term nervous breakdown has no formal meaning but comes closest to the clinical diagnosis of an adjustment disorder.

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 21

 

 

       The judgment that a person’s behavior is abnormal is made on the basis of which two core features?

  a.   maladaptiveness and loss of control over thoughts and behaviors

  b.   social noncomforming behavior that must be annoying to a majority of the population

  c.   a lack of consistent happiness and sociability in one’s life

  d.   behavior as evaluated by the person’s age and culture

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 22

 

 

The system used in the United States and Canada to classify psychological problems

  a.   is the Freudian Psychoanalytic System (FPS).

  b.   is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV)

  c.   was designed by Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler.

  d.   is to be found in the Federal Uniform Code of Psychopathology (UCP).

 

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 23

 

 

The most severe psychological disorders, which often lead to hospitalization, are

  a.   personality disorders.

  b.   psychosomatic illnesses.

  c.   anxiety disorders.

  d.   psychotic disorders.

 

 

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 24

 

 

Social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and agoraphobia are classified as

  a.  adjustment disorders.

  b.  anxiety disorders.

  c.   moderate mood disorders.

  d.   somatoform disorders.

 

 

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 25

 

 

John stays in a chronic state of tension and constantly worries about his job and his family. He often experiences

profuse sweating, a racing heart, rapid breathing, and an upset stomach. There is a good chance that he is experiencing

  a. a generalized anxiety disorder.

  b. clinical depression

  c. psychosis.

  d. multiple personality disorder

                 a.          

                 b.          

                 c.           

                 d.          

4 points  

Question 26