Tropical and Subtropical Multi Canopy Rainforests Florida

Tropical and Subtropical Multi Canopy Rainforests Florida

BSC 2011L – Midterm – Fall 2021 Instructions: Read each statement or question carefully and respond accordingly. Refer to each lab handout to refresh your memory on specific concepts and techniques. Submit your completed midterm (as an organized PDF) by Wednesday at 11:59 pm in Blackboard. You got this! Lab 1: Bioinformatics 1) Reconstruct a cladogram (draw below) including the derived characters (w/ dash marks at the appropriate locations) using table one below (10 pts). Table 1: Animals – shared derived characters 2) Construct a phylogenetic tree using the BLAST program: Bioinformatics Lab (20 pts). The instructions to construct the phylogenetic tree are in Tasks 2 and 3. You are responsible for the Pokémon adjacent to your name. a. Megan -> Shellder b. Douana -> Pidgeot c. Yamilet -> Poliwhirl d. Allison -> Venemoth e. Camille -> Golbat f. Sarah -> Blastoise g. Nicole -> Golbat h. Nathalie -> Pidgeot i. Olivia -> Venemoth j. Breanna -> Poliwhirl k. Lilliam -> Blastoise l. Eduardo -> Shellder m. Maryloly -> Blastoise n. Alejandro -> Shellder o. Obed -> Golbat p. Nicole -> Venemoth Lab 2: The Biocube 3) What was the role of the Biocube in the Biocube Lab, was it a useful tool to measure biodiversity (5 pts)? 4) Highlight a highly biodiverse ecosystem that is under threat in Florida: list two threats to that ecosystem (5 pts). Lab 3: Plant Species Diversity 5) Find and identify two different plant species in your yard or neighbor’s yard. Take a photo of each plant with a time and date stamp (see photo properties to obtain that information). Write the scientific names and plant families of the two plants. Next, determine if the plant species are native or exotic; if they’re exotic, are they invasive (20 pts)? BSC 2011L – Midterm – Fall 2021 6) Use the collected data present in table 2 to calculate and report the Shannon Weiner Diversity and Simpson’s Diversity Reciprocal Indices (H and D). Recreate the tables to show your work (20 pts). Table 2: Shannon Weiner Diversity and Simpson’s Diversity Reciprocal Indices Lab 4: FIU Preserve 7) Snap a photo (with the time and date stamp) of two different species from the order Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths, and skippers) in your yard or at a park and properly identify them (common and scientific name). How can you distinguish a butterfly from a moth from a skipper (10 pts)? 8) Compare and contrast tropical dry forests from tropical rain forests. Which one is present in south Florida (10 pts)? Bonus Points 9) We are transitioning to systems labs in the near future: list up to two biology labs you would like the instructor to facilitate in October and November (+2 pts). BSC 2011L – Padron Campus: The Biocube Lab Nathalie Martinez Olivia Martinez Lilliam Parajon Brianna Morales What Is a Biocube? A biocube is a fun, informative, and manageable way of exploring the biodiversity in the world around you by focusing on a cubic foot of space. By looking closely and documenting the life in a small area, one can get a better understanding of how different ecosystems are structured and how they function. Introduction There is a lot of life just outside our door that we never see – in the grass, under rocks, hidden bushes or in the water. Exploring this hidden life or biodiversity is a fantastic way to connect with the natural world while practicing scientific thinking and science skills. One way to do this is to use a Biocube, which allows one to look for the biodiversity in a cubic foot of space. In this activity, explorers build a Biocube out of household items, then use it to investigate nature in a small area just outside their home. See videos below: Why is biodiversity so important? – TED-Ed Biodiversity ecosystems and ecological networks – California Academy of Sciences Learning Goals v Get outside to connect with nature. v Observe and document the biodiversity that lives near you by looking for hidden life in a cubic foot of space. v Develop science skills, such as making observations, sorting and identifying plants and animals, recording data, drawing conclusions, and creative problem solving. Materials v Frame material (many options, select one): wire or plastic coat hangers, sticks, pieces of wood, cardboard, straws 1 v Tape or string or glue v Ruler v Data sheet v Pen or Pencil v Phone with camera v Ball or rock v Blindfold Task 1: Build the Biocube 1) 2) 3) 4) Gather twelve pieces of stiff material to construct a frame. Cut or fasten each frame to a length of 12 inches. Assemble twelve pieces of the stiff material into a cube using glue, tape, or string. Make sure the biocube can support itself without human assistance. Task 2: Backyard Biodiversity 1) With the aid a partner, blind fold yourself. 2) Let your partner walk you to your backyard with a rock or ball in your hand. 3) Your partner will place you in the center of they yard and spin you around three times, though, you should not face the original position. 4) Gently toss the rock or ball forward in the direction you’re facing; afterward, remove the blindfold. 5) Travel to the rock or ball, place your biocube there. 6) Record, on your data sheet, all living organisms inside the biocube: plants included. 7) It’s ok if you do not know the specific names; however, record their names through descriptions. Also, take photos of the organism, which can be uploaded to iNaturalists to assist in species identification. Clear photos of the organisms are easier to identify. 8) Estimate the number of individuals of each species inside the biocube. 9) Repeat this process two mores. Go back to the center of your yard. Do not survey the same area. Task 3: Organize and Identify: Data 1) In your group, decide the best way to organize the data for analysis and interpretation. 2) Share images and descriptions to help identify organisms. 3) Upload unidentifiable organisms to iNaturalists for assistance from experts (this may take several days or weeks). 4) Unidentifiable species can label as unknown species 1 and so on. 5) The refined data should be transferred to a word doc or excel. 2 Task 4: Excel: Data Analysis and Interpretation 1) Upload your organized data to Excel. 2) Determine the overall average number of species in your yard; separate into plant and animal species, too. 3) The instructor will demonstrate the steps to perform an ANOVA statistical analysis. 4) You will work with a new partner and perform the ANOVA together. Comparing biodiversity in your backyard against their backyard’s biodiversity. 5) Afterward, obtain the P-value and work on the final concluding statement, which you will report to the class regarding your backyard’s biodiversity. Task 5: Presentation Time – Scientific Conference 1) Prepare a group PowerPoint presentation for the following week. 2) Include an introduction, methods, table with data, statistical analysis and results, concluding remark, and relevance beyond the study. Final Thoughts 1) What contributed to high or low biodiversity in the backyards (2 pts)? To the High Biodiversity: -Build a garden -Use flowers that will atract birds and insects which will help pollination -use the least amount of pesticides -Make sure the garden is protected from pollution substances To the Low Biodiversity: -Pollution -Over pollution -garbage -use of chemicals -exposure to a lot of sun 2) What advantages do students well-versed in species identification have against students not as well-versed in identifying species (2 pts)? a. Advantages: A student who understands species identification is a competent observer of the species’ activities a maintain and encourage a favorable environment for its development and reproduction. Can inform others about species’ development and raise awareness about it. b. Disadvantage: We can harm species without realizing it, for example, we are lowering bee nectar production by applying fungicides to blossoming flowers and plants, which harm pollinators and have an impact on honey prod Pesticide side effects are beneficial to plant development but harmful to humans; this is occurring because we are unaware of the species’ disadvantages. 3) What is biodiversity, is it important: briefly explain (2 pts)? The term “biodiversity” refers to the diversity of all living species on the planet, including plants, animals, and m a: It ensures life’s long-term viability. It gives us food, shelter, clothing, and a variety of other benefits. b: It plays a vital part in evolution; every species exhibits signs of life’s evolution. Biodiversity aids in the knowled 3 diverse species’ life functions and their significance in ecosystem maintenance. 4) What type of nature is living outside in your backyard (2 pts)? In my backyard we found some species: – white flowers, red grass, fussy plant, plant with white stains, small leave plants, mint plants, yellow plant, light green plant, and flowers about to bloom. Trial 1: Trial 2: Trial 3: 5) How do statistical analyses strengthen our concluding remarks for the study, briefly explain (2 pts)? The degree to which conclusions regarding the connection between variables based on data are true or “logical” is known as statistical conclusion validity. The employment of suitable sample techniques, appropriate statistical tests, and accurate measuring procedures are all required for statistical conclusion validity. We did this by comparing the numbers of species in three different location of the same area, we can have an idea of the environment that the species prefer. For example, if a species is more relevant in the part where the sun hits the most, then it is most likely that you will find those kinds of plant in tropical and hot environment. In addition, by doing a statistical analysis, we can detect those species that can be in danger of extinction. Extra Credit: What kind of habitat is the typical American lawn (+ 1pt)? Biodiversity deserts, it has few animals and plants species and do not provide habitat for birds. Lawns make up the majority of the average American yard, yet they are biodiversity deserts, with few plant and animal species and limited bird habitat. Housekeeping 1) Submit your Excel sheet with ANOVA Test to Blackboard. 2) Submit your PowerPoint presentation with the completed table and graphs from Excel. 3) Answer the questions on page 3 and 4. 4 Name: Park Name: Date: Butterfly World 1.0: Go to the park edition 2021 South Florida parks are home to a diverse array of wildlife and ecosystems. Today, we will embark on an adventure in the butterfly garden and surrounding forest ecosystems. You are encouraged to observe interesting wildlife and plant life by sight. Next, snap a photo. Finally, upload the photo to iNaturalist. Download the iNaturalist app on your phone. Next, set up an account (see youtube.com/watch?v=KGj8gGGxs68 on how to set up an account); afterward, search for the project: Butterfly World 1.0: Butterflies, Ants, and Plants. You will upload your photos there. Let’s start the journey! 1) Here we go: Look for the nearest butterfly, moth, or skipper and snap a photo; afterward, try to identify it through the image or by sight. Finally, upload the photo to the project, Butterfly World 1.0: Butterflies, Ants, and Plants, on iNaturalist. 2) Congrats: That’s your first photo! Now, look at its antennae: is it a butterfly, moth, or skipper? Butterfly | What is the species name? Zebra Heliconian Disclaimer: Have fun and explore, it’s ok if you can’t identify exact species, use your identification guide or chat w/ local staff, and try your best. The main objective is to experience butterflies and plants in nature. 1 Name: Park Name: Date: 3) Know your plants: Plants are critical to the survival of butterflies, moths, and skippers. Adult butterflies drink nectar from flowers or liquids from fallen fruits or dung. Caterpillars eat the leaves and/or flowers of specific plants. ❖ Flowers for adult butterflies are called nectar plants. ❖ Specific plants for caterpillars are called host plants. Butterfly gardens are a mix of nectar and host plants. See miamiblue.org/plantlist, they list butterfly attracting plants suitable for southeast Florida. Snap some photos of nearby nectar plants, upload to iNaturalist. How do you know they’re nectar plants? ____________ | Can you identify the plants? _____________ Snap some photos of nearby host plants, upload to iNaturalist. How do you know they’re host plants? _______________ | Can you identify the plants? _________________ 4) Let’s travel to the forest: The forest ecosystem with large trees and a canopy is called a hardwood hammock; however, a more general term is tropical dry forest. Tropical dry forests have distinct wet and dry seasons and less rain than the familiar tropical rain forest. The federally endangered Schaus’ swallowtail butterfly lives in tropical dry forests in the Florida Keys. In the past, they lived in dry forests on south Florida’s mainland. Maybe, you will get lucky, but do you know how to identify the Schaus’ swallowtail butterfly? Two other butterfly species exist in south Florida that resemble the Schaus’ swallowtail butterfly. See pictures below, circle the Schaus’ swallowtail butterfly? G B Place a ‘G’ next to the image, place a ‘B’ next to the Bahamian swallowtail butterfly. Try to find one, snap a photo, upload to iNaturalist. Good luck, swallowtail butterflies g are always on the move. Their caterpillars feed on plants in the citrus family. Do you i remember the name of caterpillar plant food? Host Plants a n t s 2 Name: Park Name: Date: 5) Caterpillars: While taking photos of butterflies, look for signs (bite marks, frass) of caterpillars on plants in the garden and forest. Most caterpillars blend in w/ their surroundings, we call this camouflage; some are brightly colored to warn predators they’re not tasty. If you can identify host plants, you’re more likely to find caterpillars. Your mission is to find and identify three host plants for butterflies, moths, or skippers, upload photos to iNaturalists. Host plant #1 (insert name here): Torch Wood Host plant #2 (insert name here): Passion Vine Host plant #3 (insert name here): Senna Senna with a tinny yellow caterpillar 6) The Blues: Some butterflies are smaller than a quarter such as the blues – cassius blue, ceraunus blue, Miami blue, and eastern pygmy-blue butterflies. Which one of the blues is federally endangered, why is it on the verge of extinction? The Miami Blue Butterfly is federally endangered since they are all suffering from loss of habitat due to the increase in construction of South Florida’s natural environment in order to build urban and suburban developments. 3 Name: Park Name: Date: If you find this plant (above), you should spot the cassius blue butterfly (a common species) because this plant, blue plumbago, is its host plant. This plant is not native to south Florida; however, it is not considered an invasive species. What is an invasive species, name one in south Florida? An invasive species are any kind of living organism that is not native to an ecosystem and can harm the environment, the economy and in some cases human health. An example of an invasive species in South Florida is resins plant. 4 Name: Park Name: Date: What is an exotic species, name one in south Florida? An exotic species is the term for any kind of living organism that occur in areas outside of their natural geographic range. An example of an exotic species in South Florida is the Brazilian Pepper Tree. 7) Predators: Adult butterflies and caterpillars have many predators; however, invasive predators are particularly bad because they can be more effective at capturing them. The invasive graceful (elongate) twig ant (see image below) attacks small caterpillars. Look for these ants on trees, shrubs, and walls; they might be closer than you think. If they’re not here, they’re somewhere. Snap a photo and upload to iNaturalist. You might come across other ants, snap photos of them and upload to iNaturalist. 5 Name: Park Name: Date: The Test: Final Exam – Identify the butterflies below by common name. Marine Blue Giant Swallowtail Zebra Longwing __________________________________________________________________ Is this a butterfly, moth, or skipper – how can you tell? —— > It is a skipper because of the antennae. Butterfly World 1.0: Dr. Jaeson Clayborn, PhD in Biological Sciences (Florida International University) Feel free to contact me if you have any questions, concerns, or comments at jclay010@fiu.edu 6 Oct 23 Oct 30 Dichotomous Key Handout Dichotomous Key Handout Dichotomous Keys: Insects | Sharks – Part A Dichotomous Keys: Sharks Plants – Part B — 5 Evolution: Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium 18 – Animal Diversity I 19 Animal Diversity II Nov 06 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Handout Exercise 18 – Observations: Sponges Nov 13 | Cnidarians Flatworm Exercise 19 – Observations & Dissections: Segmented Worms, Nov 20 Mollusks, Roundworms, Joint-Legged Animals Nov 27 Thanksgiving Break: Gobble, Gobble Exercise 20 & 22 – Dissections: Frog Dec 04 & Fetal Pig Dec 11 Final Exam 20 & 22 Vertebrate Anatomy: Organs & Organ Systems Final Exam Question 2 Table 1: Five (5) Pokémon creatures’ features to be utilized to determine a phylogenetic tree. Shared Shellder Pikachu Pidgeot Poliwhirl Venomoth Golbat Blastoise w characteristics Eyes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Wings 0 1 1 1 0 Legs 1 1 1 1 1 1 Arms 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 Fangs 3+ Fingers 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Shellder wings Pidgeot fangs eyes Venomoth Golbath Poliwhirl Pikachu legs arms Blastoise 3+ fingers

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