History of Maya Civilization

History of Maya Civilization

1. In (480BC- 359BC), the kingdom of Macedonia under the reign of Philip II began reforming the Macedonian army using Philips military ingenuity to innovate Greek weapons to launch its attack against the Persian Empire. 2. In (359BC-338BC) Philip successfully faced off and conquered multiple cities, including Amphipolis through the use of shifting alliances, combined with his military supremacy which enabled him to increase Macedonia’s wealth and unity. 3. In 336BC while preparations were underway for the Macedonia military and Philip to move into Persia, Philip’s bodyguard, Pausanias assassinated him leading to Alexander to move to consolidate authority and lead Macedonia at the age of twenty. 4. Philip II reforms created an amalgamation of different troops including Allied Cavalry, Sarissa, infantry phalanx, archers etc. each group creating mutual support that leads to the formation of one the most significant military forces of the ancient world. 5. During the invasion, the army attacked based on strategy, therefore, having a win over their enemies based on Alexander’s arrangement the Allied Cavalry, Massed Phalanx and Mixed unit stood at the left, central and right respectively. 6. When the Persian’s army heard the Macedonia army was moving into their territory the Greek mercenary advised the troop to withdraw and force Macedonia military into retreat, the commander ignored the advice and confronted the invaders. 7. Alexander led an attack with cavalry unit across the deep stream at dawn; however, the Darius army countercharged and surrounded Alexander, but his other troops rescued him, and the Persians fled. 8. The Battle of the Granicus River was the first war won by Alexander in his invasion of the Persian Empire that established the Macedonian’s power on an enemy’s territory. 9. In 338BC, the battle of Issus occurred between the Macedonia troop led to Alexander the Great and the Achaemenian Empire led by Darius III. 10. Alexander led the charge against Darius with the infantry phalanx and allied cavalry at the central and right respectively thus shattering the left troop then moving to the central wing. 11. When Darius witnessed confusion and escaped when the news spread of his departure, his troop retreated; however, the Macedonian’s captured his family. 12. In 332BC, Ancient Egypt surrendered to Macedonia military invasion welcoming Alexander and declaring him the son of Amun, a son of their chief god. 13. The people regarded Alexander as their deliverer from the brutal oppression they expressed under the rule of the Persian Empire. 14. During winter, Alexander the Great used the period to establish a government in Egypt and restored political authority to the natives; however, under the Macedonian command. 15. The Hellenic league, that is, Alexander’s army met the Persian army under the reign of Darius III met at a group chosen by the Persians at the Plain of Gaugamela. 16. Darius had the terrain of the battlefield smoothed which would enable his many chariots to operate effectively against Macedonians. 17. When Darius saw Alexander and his cavalry penetrate to attack the Persians’ rear, he took flight which lead to panic through his entire army thus retreated; the Greek army cut them down becoming a massacre. 18. 330BC while still hunted down Darius III, Alexander won a victory over Babylonia, Susa and Persian gate however as he drew close Bessus murdered Darius III and was buried in the royal tomb as ordered by Alexander. 19. In 328BC, the Macedonian army had already had victory over multiple territories; however, the troop become angry due to the long journey without seeing their relatives which brought disunity to the group leading of the death of Cleitus and other individuals who planned to execute Alexander. 20. The army also refused to participate in Proskynesis religious rituals that entailed bowing before Alexander, to them the act was a sign of blasphemy which was against Greek culture. 21. In 327BC, Alexander the great married one of the princesses in Persia who bore him a son similarly a few years later queen of Massaga bore him a son that prevented him from taking her kingdom. 22. Through his Persian invasion, Alexander the Great commemorated his victory by founding multiple cities including Alexandria Ariana, Alexandria Arachosia, Alexandria, Alexandria Bucephalous etc. 23. When the troop reached Indius River, the soldier refused to go beyond; moreover, Alexander continuously received reports that the governors appointed to lead the areas executed corruption; therefore, the troop turned back but used different routes. 24. Alexander the Great died at the age of 32 of fever; however, it is not clear the cause of death. 25. After the death of Alexander, his territories divided as his generals strived for power which eventually led to the murder of Alexander’s wife and son …

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