International Context of Asian Migration

 International Context of Asian Migration

ASA 001 Fall 2020 Prof. R. Kim Migration, Race, Class, and Labor “Revolving door” migration •Chinese (1850-1924) •Japanese (1885-1924) •Korean (1903-1924) •Asian Indian (1904-1917) •Filipino (1909-1934) U.S. mainland and Hawaii Credit-ticket system • Paid for passage from China to California through merchant brokers California Gold Rush 1848 • Gam Saan (Gold Mountain) • Chinese merchants in mining areas Transcontinental railroad •Central Pacific Railroad •Race-stratified labor market •Middleman/merchant class •1869 Promontory Point, Utah San Francisco and urban areas •Urban industrial manufacturing •Racial and labor strife •Accused of being “cheap labor” Rural agricultural laborers • Reclaiming swamp lands in Sacramento River and San Joaquin deltas • Levee construction • California agriculture • Farm laborers Self-employment •Stores, restaurants, and laundries •Chinese laundryman “Revolving door” migration •Chinese (1850-1924) •Japanese (1885-1924) •Korean (1903-1924) •Asian Indian (1904-1917) •Filipino (1909-1934) Japanese immigrants •Dekasegi period (1885-1907) •Settler-permanent resident period (1908-1924) Japanese government and immigration •Student-laborers •“Schoolboys” Agriculture in American West •Large-scale migrations, 1891-1907 •Agricultural labor •Labor contractors •Working conditions •Seasonal migrations © Richard S. Kim 2020 ASA 001 Fall 2020 What is “Asian American” and Asian American Studies? Black-white racial paradigm • Is Yellow Black or White? Assimilated – model minority, honorary whites Centrality of race and racism • Ronald Takaki Asian Americans in American history and society • • • • • Neglect and distortion (Roger Daniels) Outsiders to U.S. nation Rendered invisible How Tiger lost his stripes Asian fades into black Redefining what it means to be American • Vital part of U.S. history and society Who are Asian Americans? • Diverse and heterogeneous • map and chart.pdf • “Asian American” coined in late 1960s to replace “Oriental” Table 6. Asian Population by Detailed Group: 2000 and 2010 (For information on confidentiality protection, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/sf1.pdf) Asian alone1 Detailed group 2000 2010 Percent change 10,242,998 14,674,252 43.3 1,655,830 1,718,778 2,918,807 69.8 180,821 46,905 142,080 202.9 10,507 192 18,814 9,699.0 20 14,620 95,536 553.5 2,100 183,769 255,497 39.0 22,283 2,564,190 3,535,382 37.9 301,042 2,432,046 3,322,350 36.6 288,391 118,827 199,192 67.6 11,564 1,908,125 2,649,973 38.9 456,690 174,712 252,323 44.4 11,598 44,186 70,096 58.6 18,887 18 2 –88.9 60 852,237 841,824 –1.2 296,695 1,099,422 1,463,474 33.1 129,005 179,103 209,646 17.1 19,100 15,029 21,868 45.5 3,537 29 102 251.7 22 3,699 15,138 309.2 2,169 8,209 57,209 596.9 1,190 6,138 5,681 –7.4 4,461 164,628 382,994 132.6 39,681 2,017 4,569 126.5 377 21,364 41,456 94.0 3,223 120,918 182,872 51.2 29,365 1,169,672 1,632,717 39.6 54,064 162,913 238,332 46.3 213,810 2,646,604 264,256 5,220 625 4,664 21,170 474,732 457,382 16,249 766,867 7,750 25,174 10 462,462 243,348 22,484 4,311 25 3,206 2,281 5,645 26,169 778 3,925 54,711 104,716 385,429 59.8 46.1 –50.3 3,025.0 122.1 –5.0 57.7 58.6 40.5 67.9 –33.2 33.3 –83.3 55.9 88.6 17.7 21.9 13.6 47.8 91.7 26.5 –34.1 106.4 21.8 86.3 93.7 80.3 2000     Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian Indian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bangladeshi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bhutanese. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Burmese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cambodian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chinese2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chinese, except Taiwanese3. . . Taiwanese3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hmong. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indonesian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Iwo Jiman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Korean. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laotian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malaysian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maldivian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mongolian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nepalese. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Okinawan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pakistani . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Singaporean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sri Lankan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thai. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vietnamese. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian, not specified4 . . . . . Percent 2010 change Asian in combination with one or more other races 1 Detailed Asian group alone or in any combination1 2010 Percent change 11,898,828 17,320,856 1,899,599 3,183,063 57,412 147,300 212 19,439 16,720 100,200 206,052 276,667 2,865,232 4,010,114 2,720,437 3,779,732 130,391 215,441 2,364,815 3,416,840 186,310 260,073 63,073 95,270 78 12 1,148,932 1,304,286 1,228,427 1,706,822 198,203 232,130 18,566 26,179 51 127 5,868 18,344 9,399 59,490 10,599 11,326 204,309 409,163 2,394 5,347 24,587 45,381 150,283 237,583 1,223,736 1,737,433 376,723 623,761 45.6 67.6 156.6 9,069.3 499.3 34.3 40.0 38.9 65.2 44.5 39.6 51.0 –84.6 13.5 38.9 17.1 41.0 149.0 212.6 532.9 6.9 100.3 123.4 84.6 58.1 42.0 65.6 2000 Note: This table shows more detailed Asian groups and response types than tables in 2010 Census Summary File 1 and Census 2000 Summary File 1. As a result, some numbers do not match those shown in the 2010 Census Summary File 1 and Census 2000 Summary File 1. 1 The numbers by detailed Asian group do not add to the total Asian population. This is because the detailed Asian groups are tallies of the number of Asian responses rather than the number of Asian respondents. Respondents reporting several Asian groups are counted several times. For example, a respondent ­reporting “Korean” and “Filipino” would be included in the Korean as well as the Filipino numbers. 2 Includes respondents who reported “Chinese” and “Taiwanese” together. 3 Excludes respondents who reported “Chinese” and “Taiwanese” together.. 4 Includes respondents who checked the “Other Asian” response category on the census questionnaire or wrote in a generic term such as “Asian” or “Asiatic.” Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census special tabulation. groups, such as Filipino, Korean, and White. All of these columns are summed and presented in the last data column, detailed Asian group alone or in any combination. Thus, the last column presents the maximum number of people who identified as the detailed Asian group. The Chinese population was the largest detailed Asian group. In the 2010 Census, the detailed Asian groups with one million or more responses for the Asian alone-or-in-any-combination U.S. Census Bureau population were Chinese, Filipino, Asian Indian, Vietnamese, Korean, and Japanese (see Table 5). The Chinese alone-or-in-any-­ combination population, the largest detailed Asian group, was 4.0 million. There were 3.3 million people who reported Chinese alone with no additional detailed Asian group or race category. Filipino and Asian Indian were the second- and third-largest detailed Asian groups. Filipino and Asian Indian were the next largest detailed Asian groups for the Asian alone-or-in-any-­combination population. Filipino was the second-largest detailed Asian group of the Asian alone-or-in-any-combination population (3.4 million), followed by Asian Indian (3.2 million). However, for the Asian alone population where only one detailed Asian group was reported, Asian Indian was the second-largest group (2.8 million), followed by Filipino (2.6 million). The Bhutanese population experienced the fastest growth from 2000 to 2010. The Bhutanese population experienced the fastest growth from 15 Oriental • East • Occidental • West Edward Said- Orientalism (1979) • • • • • • • • • • • Late 18th century Europe Enlightenment Power to name and classify Taxonomy Western ideas and knowledge of the “Orient” East/West binary Central to self conception of Europe and the West East vs. West, East meets West European imperial expansion into Asia, Africa, and the Americas American Orientalism American nation and identity Race and Asian Americans • • • • • • • • Perpetual foreigners Forever foreigner Foreigner within Perpetual immigrant Perpetual outsiders Never perceived as full Americans Centrality of racism in Asian American history White supremacy – logic of social organization “Asian American” • Anti-Oriental • Panethnicity • Generalization of solidarity among ethnic subgroups • Pan-Asian identity • Political consciousness, politicized identities • Product of social and political processes 1960s Social Movements Asian American Studies and Ethnic Studies • San Francisco State College Strike (1968) • Third World Liberation Front (TWLF) Civil rights movement and Black Power movement • “Equal opportunities for all” • “By any means necessary” Anti-imperialist, anti-colonial movements in Third World • Colonialism abroad and racial inequality in US • Internal colonialism • Self-determination and liberation Anti-war movement • U.S. racism in Vietnam War • Racial commonality as Asians “The TWLF has its purpose to aid in further developing politically, economically, and culturally the revolutionary Third World consciousness of racist oppressed peoples both on and off campus. As Third World students, as Third World people, as so-called minorities, we are being exploited to the fullest extent in this racist white America, and we are therefore preparing ourselves and our people for a prolonged struggle for freedom from this yoke of oppression.” “The Third World was and continues to be a demand of colonized peoples for freedom and selfdetermination-for the right to control and develop their own economic, political, and social institutions.” For Asian Americans, the struggles transformed our communities. They created an extensive network of student organizations and Asian American Studies classes. They recovered a buried cultural tradition as well as produced a new generation of writers, poets, and artists. But most importantly, the struggles profoundly altered Asian American consciousness. They redefined racial and ethnic identity, promoted new ways of thinking about communities, and challenged prevailing notions of power and authority. – Glenn Omatsu Asian American Studies • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Anti-oriental Claim belonging as Americans Political empowerment and social change Center race and power in social analysis Oppositional orientation –challenge prevailing notions of power and authority Upholding democracy, liberty, and justice Critical consciousness – political orientation “One is not born Asian American, but becomes one” Status as ethnic and racial minorities within the United States Pan-Asian identity as “Asian Americans” Interracial coalitional politics based on Third World solidarity Changes in Asian America since 1960s Challenges of pan-Asian unity Diversity of Asian America. What is an Asian American? Third World Forum (TWF) newsletter, UC Davis, 1973 https://twfe.ucdavis.edu/ …