Nursing Pender Outline

Nursing Pender Outline

Nola Pender (born August 16, 1941) is a nursing theorist, author, and academic. She is a professor emeritus of nursing at the University of Michigan. Nola Pender developed a nursing theory called the Health Promotion Model. This theory is aimed at helping patients prevent illness through their behaviors and choices (Butts et al., 2013).

B. She earned her Ph.D. degree from Northwestern University in 1969. During her doctoral degree, she met a doctoral advisor by the name James Hall who studied human thoughts in relation to how they influenced and shaped their behavior and motivation. From her interaction with James, Nola developed a keen interest in health promotion, which culminated in her, coming up with the health promotion model after seeing that health personnel only intervene when a patient has developed an acute or chronic health condition (Butts et al., 2013).

C. She believed that preventing a health complication before it occurred could improve a person’s quality of life and save them money. Pender’s model was published in 1982.

D. Overview of the Theory

• The purpose of Nola Pender’s theory is to aid nurses in helping their patients identify health risk factors as well as beneficial practices in order to help the patients actively determine which behaviors will result in achieving optimum health (Pender, 2011).

• The Health Promotion Model is based on eight assessment-nursing beliefs, all of which can be determined as points of potential nursing intervention (Petiprin, 2016).

• The key nursing concepts captured in the model include a consideration of the:

· Person

· Environment

· Nursing

· Health

· Illness (Pender, 2011)


A. Health Promotion Model

1. The Model:

· In1982, Dr. Pender published the Health Promotion Model in her first edition book, Health Promotion in Nursing Practice.

· The key components of this model include individual characteristics and experiences, behavior specific cognition and affects, and behavioral outcome health promoting behavior.

· The purpose of this model is to promote health promotion and illness prevention.

· It can aid nurses to help patients in altering their negative behaviors.

· Mid-range theory: A testable theory that contains a limited number of variables, and is limited in scope as well, yet is of sufficient in generality to be useful with a variety of clinical research questions (physical exercise, diet, smoking, stress management) (Brown, 2013).

2. Focus and Goal:

· In Pender’s perspective, health is a positive dynamic state, not just absence of disease. Thus, her theory focuses on three main aspects of life, behavior specific knowledge, individual experience, and behavior outcome. As such, every individual should be educated on behavioral changes that will help promote their health.

· Dr. Pender wanted a model that focused on positive factors:

· Identified factors that influence behavior (Pender, 2011)

· The nurse work with the patient to discover behaviors and help change them, so can lead to a healthy lifestyle (Pender, 2011)

· Dr. Pender believed that prevention is a better option because it delivers:

· Better quality of life

· Increased life span

· Saving in health care dollars (Pender, 2011)

· With this knowledge, these individuals should then work towards changing their past behaviors, whether cultural practices or family traditions, with the hope that these changes will produce anticipated health benefits. The goal is to learn and set up health promoting behavior (Alligood, 2014).

III. THE THEORIST: NOLA PENDER need a reference where I got this picture from internet


A- Born in Lansing, Michigan on August 16, 1941

B- An only child of Frank and Eileen Blunk

C- In high school, Pender became a Red Cross volunteer at Edward Sparrow Hospital.

D- She married Albert Pender, a high school teacher.

E- They had first child in 1971, Andrea, and second child, Brent, 1972 (Brown, 2013).


I do not remember which source I used for this information, but there is so many sources in the internet. Could you find one of them for this one? This is easy to find, believe me.

A. 1959-1962 – RN Pender went to West Suburban Hospital School of Nursing, Oak Park, Illinois and earned a Diploma Nursing Certificate ( ref here?)

B. 1962-1964 – Earned her B.S. at Michigan State University Nursing, East Lansing, Michigan ref here

C. 1964-1965 – Earned her M.A. Human Growth and Development-Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan.

D. 1967-1969 – She received her PhD degrees in both Psychology and Education at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.

E. She began teaching soon after at the School of Nursing at Northern Illinois University

F. 1980-1983 20 Graduate Nursing hours-Rush University Community Health, Chicago, Illinois


A. 1962 – Present – Joined the American Nursing Association (ref?)

B. 1985-1987- President of the Midwestern Nursing Research Society (Regents of the University of Michigan, 2011). ref

C. 1992- Achieved Honorary Doctorate of Science Degree, Widener University, Chester, Pennsylvania (Brown, 2013). ref

D. 1991-1993 – President of the American Academy of Nursing

E. 1993-2000 – Member of the Board of Directions of Research America

F. 1998-2002 – Member of the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force

G. 2009-Present – Trustee of the Midwest Nursing Research Society Foundation

H. 2009 – Present – Co-founder, Midwest Nursing Research Society (Regents of the University of Michigan, 2011).


I used this website

Please give it as reference

A. 1972 – Earned the Distinguished Alumni Award from MSU ref?

B. 1988 – Earned Distinguished Contributions to Research, Midwestern Nursing Research Society

C. 1997 – Earned Distinguished Contributions to Nursing and Psychology, American Psychological Association

D. 1998 – Received Mae Edna Doyle Teacher of the Year Award from MSU

E. 2005 – Earned the Lifetime Achievement Award, Midwest Nursing Research Society, Selected for Portraits of Excellence, FITNE Series, Volume II (Regents of the University of Michigan, 2011).


I used this web site:

Could you give it as reference ? (I think I need to put reference each of them from A to the end which is N) I think when you give reference for the source, we can use it for all of it – from A to N which is great!

A. Pender, N.J., Murdaugh, C., & Parsons, M.A. (2010). Health promotion in nursing practice, 6th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice-Hall.

B. Hendricks, C., Murdaugh, C., & Pender, N. (2006). The adolescent lifestyle profile: Development and psychometric characteristics. Journal of National Black Nurses Association, 17(2), 1-5.

C. Robbins, L.B., Gretebeck, K.A., Kazanis, A.S., Pender, N.J. (2006). Girls on the Move program to increase physical activity participation. Nursing Research, 55(3), 206-216.

D. Pender, N.J., Bar-Or, O., Wilk, B. & Mitchell, S. (2002). Self-efficacy and perceived exertion of girls during exercise. Nursing Research, 5, 86-91.

E. Whitlock, E.P., Orleans, C.T., Pender, N. J., Allan, J. (2002). Evaluating primary care behavioral counseling interventions: An evidence-based approach. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 22(4), 267-284.

F. Eden, K.B., Orleans, C.T., Mulrow, C.D., Pender, N.J., Teutsch, S.M. (2002). Does counseling by clinicians improve physical activity? A summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Annals of Internal Medicine, 137 (3), 208-215.

G. Shin, Y.H., Jang, H.J., & Pender, N.J. Psychometric evaluation of the exercise self-efficacy scale among Korean adults with chronic diseases. Research in Nursing & Health, 24, 68-76.

H. Robbins, L.B., Pender, N.J., Conn, V.S., Frenn, M.D., Neuberger, G.B., Nies, M.A., Topp, R.V., & Wilbur, J.E. (2001). Physical activity research in nursing. Journal of Nursing Scholars, 33(4), 315-321.

I. Wu, T.Y., & Pender, N.J. (2001). Determinants of physical activity among Taiwanese adolescents: An application of the health promotion model. Research in Nursing & Health, 25, 25-36.

J. Garcia, A.W., Pender, N.J., Antonakos, C.L., & Ronis, D.L. (1998). Changes in physical activity beliefs and behaviors of boys and girls across the transition to junior high school. Journal of Adolescent Health, 22(5), 394-402.

K. Pender, N.J. (1998). Motivation for physical activity among children and adolescents. In J.Fitzpatrick & J. S. Stevenson (Eds). Annual Review of Nursing Research. New York: Springer, 139-172.

L. Pender, N.J. (1997). Health promotion: An emerging science for self-care and professional care. Quality Nursing, 3(5), 449-454.

M. Pender, N.J., Sallis, J., Long, B.J., et al. (1994). Health care provider counseling to promote physical activity. In R. K. Dishman (Ed.) Advances in Exercise Adherence Champaign. IL: Human Kinetics, 213-235.

N. Pender, N.J., Walker, S.N., Stromborg, M.F., & Sechrist, K.R. (1990). Predicting health-promoting lifestyles in the workplace. Nursing Research, 39 (6), 326-332.


information was gotten from this web site. Please give reference this web site in APA STYLE. Thank you VERY MUCH.

A. Pender, N. J., Murdaugh, C. L, & Parsons, M. Ann. (2002). Health promotion in nursing practice. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

B. Pender, N. J., Murdaugh, C. L, & Parsons, M. Ann. (2006). Health promotion in nursing practice. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

C. Pender, N. J., Murdaugh, C. L, & Parsons, M. Ann. (2011). Health promotion in nursing practice. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson.

D. Pender, N. J., Murdaugh, C. L., & Parsons, M. Ann. (2015). Health promotion in nursing practice. Seventh edition. Boston: Pearson.

Please make sure that all references are here in APA style. THANK YOU VERY MUCH !


Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing theorists and their work, 8th Ed. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Brown, K. (2013). Copy of Nola Pender. Retrieved from Prezi,

Butts, J. B., Bandhauer, D., & Rich, K. L. (2013). Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing practice. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Pender, N. J. (2011). Heath Promotion model manual. Retrieved from

Petiprin, A. (2016). Health promotion model – nursing theory. Retrieved from Nursing Theory,

Regents of the University of Michigan. (2011, June 17). Nola J. Pender. Retrieved from University of Michigan School of Nursing,

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