Philosophy Homework

Philosophy Homework

Introduction to Philosophy

 

 

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Tracking Your Academic Activities Verifying an accurate course completion time is essential for accreditation. To meet both accreditation requirements and award academic credit, educational institutions must document the total number of hours students spend completing designated academic activities related to their coursework.

The total hours are then translated into academic credit based on a prescribed method of measuring educational attainment known as the Carnegie Unit. 90 hours of student preparation time and 45 hours of student engagement time are required for a 3 credit hour course.

Using the attached form as an example, keep track of the time you spend on each lesson, pre-test, self-test, unit test, writing assignment, reading assignment, outside reading, final examination, etc. You will not be required to turn in the worksheet; however, at the end of the course you will receive a Student Course Survey and the final question will ask how long it took you to complete the course. Your assistance in completing this requirement and providing the university with this valuable data is greatly appreciated.

As you fill out the worksheet, please keep in mind that your Academic Engagement Activities should total approximately 45 hours. Some examples of this type of activity may include:

Lesson Review Exercises

Key Term Reviews

Analysis

Study Guide Review

Writing Assignments

Review Grading Rubric

Unit Examinations

Proctored Final Examination

Course Academic Online Discussions

Student/Instructor Interaction

Documents/Student Resources

As you fill out the Academic Preparation Activities, please keep in mind that these should total approximately 90 hours. Some samples of this type of activity may include:

Pre-Test

Reading Assignments

Key Term Reviews

Studying for Examinations

Writing Assignments

Review Grading Rubric

Study Lesson Review Exercises

Internet/Web Research

Reading Websites

Suggested Outside Reading

 

 

 

Sample Worksheet for Tracking Your Academic Activities

Upon completion of this course, you will be asked to complete a survey. The last question on the survey will ask you the number of hours it took to complete the course. The total hours are then translated into academic credit based on a prescribed method of measuring educational attainment known as the Carnegie Unit. 90 hours of student preparation time and 45 hours of student engagement time (135 hours) are required for a 3 credit hour course.

This worksheet was developed as a tool to help track your time. You are not required to turn it in.

length of time to

complete

length of time to

complete

length of time to

complete

length of time to

complete Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Totals

Academic Engagement Activities Lesson Review Exercises Key Term Review Exercises Study Guide Review Documents/Student Resources Writing Assignments Review Grading Rubric Unit Examinations Proctored Final Examination Case Studies/Critical Analysis Course Academic Online Discussions Student/Instructor Interactions

Total Academic Engagement required for a 3 unit course = 45 hours

Academic Preparation Activities Pre-Test Reading Assignments Analyze Case Studies/Critical Analysis Key Term Review Exercises Study for Examinations Suggested Outside Readings Web Research Writing Assignments Review Grading Rubric Reading Websites Study Lesson Review Exercises

Total Academic Preparation required for a 3 unit course = 90 hours

Grand total of hours of various learning activities in completing this course

 

 

 

Pre-test Instructions

Thank you for taking the time to complete the required pre-test. The purpose of the pre-test is to measure your knowledge of the subject matter at the beginning of each course.

Please be assured, your score on the pre-test will not be part of your course grade. We do not want you to try to study for it or be worried about doing well on the pre-test. It is simply a measure of your “starting place,” that will be used for improving course content and to meet accreditation requirements.

If you receive your course materials online: • Please log-in to your Coast Connection student portal to complete your pre-test.

If you receive your course materials by mail: • You will receive your answer sheets for the pre-test by mail. • Once you have completed your pre-test, please mail or fax your answer sheet to the University at:

California Coast University 925 N. Spurgeon Street Santa Ana, CA 92701 Fax: 714-547-1451

If you have any questions, please feel free to contact the Student Services Department. Thank you for your cooperation.

 

 

 

Pre-test GED 212 Introduction to Philosophy

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

Philosophical questions are primarily subjective in nature. 1.

Truea. False b.

The word philosophy derives from two ancient Greek words: philia, which means love, and 2. sophia, which means wisdom.

Truea. False b.

Another word for the facts, evidence, theories, or ideas that allegedly lead to an argument’s 3. claim is premises.

Truea. False b.

If someone is a student at Hogwart’s, then he or she is studying witchcraft and wizardry. 4. Neville Longbottom is a student at Hogwart’s. Therefore, Neville Longbottom is studying witchcraft and wizardry. This is an excellent example of Modus Ponens, or the Asserting Rule.

Truea. False b.

The idea that there is one special person somewhere in the world that is your destiny to meet 5. and fall in love with is an example of ______.

Fatalisma. Determinismb. Free willc. None of the above d.

A “Freudian slip” is an example of how the unconscious can determine what we say. 6.

Truea. False b.

 

 

Pre-test GED 212 Introduction to Philosophy

William James is the most important representative of _____, the school of thought that claims 7. that what is true is what “works.”

Indeterminisma. Existentialismb. Pragmatismc. Free will d.

According to Ellis, irrational beliefs prove that determinism is correct. 8.

Truea. False b.

_____ revised Bentham’s ideas by arguing for the importance of differences in the type, kind, 9. or quality of pleasures and pains that follow from actions.

Kanta. Millb. Platoc. Scorates d.

In a religious approach to ethics, faith and the authority of sacred texts have the final word. 10.

Truea. False b.

Plato thinks that we are made up of three parts, physical, emotional, and intellectual. 11.

Truea. False b.

Plato believes that in the unhealthy soul there is an inappropriate balance among the three 12. parts.

Truea. False b.

Plato explains the divided line theory with the allegory of a cave 13.

Truea. False b.

 

 

Pre-test GED 212 Introduction to Philosophy

The philosophical approach to knowledge known as empiricism claims that knowledge comes 14. from, or arises in, our minds.

Truea. False b.

Gilbert Ryle uses the term ___________ to describe an error in logical categories, otherwise 15. known as “comparing apples to oranges.”

Informala. Incorrect analogyb. Category falsec. Category mistake d.

An argument from design, claims that the universe is so intelligently crafted that it must have 16. a creator.

Truea. False b.

David Hume claims the fear is the basis of religion, that people “accept religion on emotional 17. grounds.

Truea. False b.

Hegel’s label for the dynamic and conflict-filled process that dominates reality is dialectic, the 18. three elements of which are thesis, antithesis, synthesis.

Truea. False b.

_______________ is the Buddhist idea that because the task of spiritual development is too 19. complex to accomplish in one lifetime, we live many lives.

Karmaa. Our destinyb. Rebirthc. Free will d.

 

 

Pre-test GED 212 Introduction to Philosophy

According to Einstein, _________ will be perceived the same whether the observer is moving or 20. not.

Space-time continuuma. String theoryb. The speed of lightc. Theory of Relativity d.

Imagine two twins. One gets onto a space ship and travels close to the speed of light for what 21. the ship’s clocks record as a few months. The other twin remains on earth. When the space ship returns, there will be no difference in their ages.

Truea. False b.

In ______________ “conventional” morality, including stages three and four, we understand 22. right and wrong in terms of laws and the expectations of others.

Kohlberg’sa. Perry’sb. Belenky’sc. Gilligan’s d.

If we combine the two perspectives represented by Kohlberg and Gilligan, the problem of the 23. moral justification of an action becomes more difficult and involved.

Truea. False b.

The one dolphin sense that acts as both their eyes and ears in the water is like the modern 24. human sonar system onboard submarines.

Truea. False b.

In terms of the criteria for personhood developed in this chapter, dolphins, on balance, did 25. pretty well.

Truea. Falseb.

 

 

 

925 North Spurgeon Street, Santa Ana, CA 92701 Phone: 714-547-9625 Fax: 714-547-5777

Text:

Author(s):

Publisher:

S tu

d y G

u id

e

Discovering Philosophy, Portfolio Edition

2nd Edition, 2008

ISBN 13: 9780132302128

Thomas I. White

Prentice Hall

12/14

GED212 Introduction to Philosophy

 

 

 

Message From the President

Introduction to Philosophy

Welcome to California Coast University. I hope you will find this course interesting and useful throughout your career. This course was designed to meet the unique needs of students like you who are both highly motivated and capable of completing a degree program through distance learning.

Our faculty and administration have been involved in distance learning for over forty years and understand the characteristics common to successful students in this unique educational environment.

This course was prepared by CCU faculty members who are not only outstanding educators but who have real world experience. They have prepared these guidelines to help you successfully complete your educational goals and to get the most from your distance learning experience.

Again, we hope that you will find this course both helpful and motivating. We send our best wishes as you work toward the completion of your degree.

Sincerely,

Thomas M. Neal President

 

 

 

 

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotation in review. Copyright © 2014 by California Coast University

 

 

 

Syllabus

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Introduction to Philosophy

Course Number GED212

Course Title Introduction to Philosophy

Course Description This course allows students to critically examine the fundamental philosophical issues of reality, personhood, free will, knowledge, and the idea of God and life after death. The ideas of determinism, freedom, ethics, democracy and life purpose are all explored in a philosophical context, challenging students to think critically about the questions which have puzzled mankind for centuries.

Units of Credit 3 Units of Credit

Course Objectives Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

• Understand the most fundamental issues that philosophy investigates.

• Describe the issue of free will versus determinism.

• Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the teleological and deontological approach of ethics.

• Describe the major empirical arguments for the existence of God.

• Describe the concepts needed for personhood.

Learning Resources Textbook: Discovering Philosophy, Portfolio Edition 2nd Edition, 2008 Thomas I. White Prentice Hall

ISBN 13: 9780132302128

All course examinations are based on the contents of the textbook required for this course. To successfully complete the examinations, you will need the textbook. You may rent the textbook from the CCU rental library or you may purchase the textbook from another source.

Although this study guide is developed by California Coast University, it may contain materials provided by the publisher of the textbook.

The Study Guide

The study guide was designed to help you further understand the material in the textbook and master the course content. Each study guide chapter corresponds to a chapter in the textbook.

 

 

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Additional Readings and Online Resources

To help you further understand this subject material, additional readings and/or online resources related to this course are listed in this syllabus.

The Library Information and Resources Network, Inc. (LIRN)

Students are provided access to the Library and Information Resources Network, Inc. (LIRN). LIRN provides a centralized management of electronic information resources that allow students to access multiple research databases through one portal. Detailed information on the Library and Information Resources Network, Inc. is available on the California Coast University website under the Resources Tab. For additional information on using the network, LIRN provides a User Guide to help students search for the needed information. This helpful resource is available on the LIRN website. For information on accessing LIRN, please contact California Coast University – library@calcoast.edu or (714) 547-9625.

Supplementary Materials

Unit Examination Answer Sheets* Final Examination Scheduling Form

*Master of Education and Doctor of Education students will not receive unit exam answer sheets. These programs require written responses only.

Your Course Grade

Your grades on course examinations are determined by the percentage of correct answers. The university uses the following grading system:

A = 90% – 100% correct B = 80% – 89% correct C = 70% – 79% correct D = 60% – 69% correct F = 59% and below correct

Your grade in this course will be based on the number of points you earn. Grades are based on the percentage of points you earned out of a total of 500 points:

Four Unit Examinations

100 points each 400 points total 80% of your grade

Final Examination

100 points 100 points total 20% of your grade

 

 

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Mastering the Course Content

In order to successfully complete this course, we recommend that you do the following before beginning:

• Be sure that you have the correct edition of the course textbook. Check the ISBN number of your textbook with the ISBN number listed on the cover page of this study guide.

• Review the table of contents at the end of this syllabus. You will only be responsible for the chapters in the textbook that are listed in the table of contents.

Each study guide contains several components selected and developed by the faculty to help you master the content of the course. Each chapter in the study guide corresponds to a chapter in the textbook. Study guides vary depending on the course, but most will include:

Learning Objectives Overviews Self Tests Summaries Key Terms Critical Analysis Questions (graduate and doctoral students only)

The most efficient way to complete this course is to read the materials in both the study guide and textbook in the sequence in which it appears, generally from beginning to end.

Read the Overviews and Summaries

Before reading a chapter of your textbook, review the corresponding learning objectives, overview, key terms and summary sections in the study guide. These were prepared to give you an overview of the content to be learned.

Review the Self Test

After you have reviewed the study guide summaries, look at the items on the self test. As you identify your areas of relative strength and weakness, you will become more aware of the material you will need to learn in greater depth.

Review the Critical Analysis and/or Case Study Questions (Graduate and Doctoral Students Only) The critical analysis questions are designed to help you gain a deeper understanding and appreciation for the course subject matter. This section will encourage you to give additional thought to the topics discussed in the chapter by presenting vignettes or cases with real world relevance.

 

 

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Read and Review the Chapter

Once you have the scope and organization of the chapter in mind, turn to the corresponding chapter in the textbook and read the material carefully. Keep the learning objectives, self test, critical analysis questions and/or case study questions in mind as you read.

Highlight important concepts and information in your study guide and write notes in the study guide as you read the textbook. These notes will help you study for the unit and final examinations.

Check Your Mastery of Each Chapter

When you feel that you have mastered the concepts presented in the chapter, complete the study guide self test and critical analysis questions and/or case study questions without referring to the textbook or your notes. Correct your responses using the answer key and solutions guide provided in the study guide. Your results will help you identify any areas you need to review.

Unit Examinations

Each course contains four unit examinations and a final examination. Unit examinations usually consist of 25 objective (multiple choice or true/false) test questions. For Master of Education and Doctor of Education students, unit examinations consist of writing assignments only.

Unit examinations may be found approximately every four to six chapters throughout your study guide. Unit examinations are open-book, do not require a proctor and are not timed. This will allow you to proceed at your own pace.

It is recommended that you check your answers against the material in your textbook for accuracy.

Writing Assignments

Each unit examination includes a written component. This assignment may be in the form of written questions or case study problems. The writing assignment affords the student an opportunity to demonstrate a level of subject mastery beyond the objective unit examinations, which reflects his/her ability to analyze, synthesize, evaluate and apply his/her knowledge. The writing assignment materials are found immediately following each unit examination.

Writing assignments are judged on the quality of the response in regard to the question. Word count is NOT one of the criteria that is used in assigning points to writing assignments. However, students who are successful in earning the maximum number of points tend to submit writing assignments that fall in the following ranges:

 

 

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• Undergraduate courses: 350 – 500 words or 1 – 2 pages.

• Graduate courses: 500 – 750 words or 2 – 3 pages.

• Doctoral courses: 750 – 1000 words or 4 – 5 pages.

Plagiarism

All work must be free of any form of plagiarism. Put written answers into your own words. Do not simply cut and paste your answers from the Internet and do not copy your answers from the textbook. Plagiarism consists of taking and using the ideas, writings or inventions of another, without giving credit to that person and presenting it as one’s own. This is an offense that the university takes very seriously. An example of a correctly prepared written response may be found by visiting the Coast Connection student portal.

Citation Styles

The majority of your response should be your own original writing based on what you have learned from the textbook. However, students may also use outside materials if applicable. Be sure to provide a reference (or citation) for any materials used, including the required textbook. The following points are designed to help you understand how to provide proper references for your work:

• References are listed in two places.

• The first reference is briefly listed within your answer. This includes identifying information that directs the reader to your list of references at the end of your writing assignment.

• The second reference is at the end of your work in the list of references section.

• All references cited should provide enough identifying information so that the reader can access the original material.

For more detailed information on the proper use of citations, please refer to the CCU Student Handbook located on the Coast Connection student portal.

Submitting Your Unit Examinations and Writing Assignments via the Internet

Students may access the online testing features via the Coast Connection student portal. Multiple choice unit examinations may be completed and submitted online.

 

 

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Go to the California Coast University homepage at www.calcoast.edu and click on the student login icon at the upper right hand corner. After logging into your account, click on My Academic Plan and select the course you are working on to complete the unit examination. Remember to keep a copy of your answers for your own personal records.

Writing assignments may be submitted online as well. After logging into the student portal, click on My Academic Plan and select the course you are working on to complete the writing assignment. Here, you will find further information and instructions on how to submit writing assignments through the student portal. Remember to keep a copy of your writing assignments for your own personal records.

Alternatively, if you experience diffulty submitting your writing assignments through the student portal, then you may email your assignments as a Word document attachment to essays@calcoast.edu. When doing so, please adhere to the following guidelines:

• Always submit your name, student number, course number, course title and unit number with your writing assignment.

• Begin each writing assignment by identifying the question number you are answering followed by the actual question itself (in bold type).

• Use a standard essay format for responses to all questions (i.e., an introduction, middle paragraphs and conclusion).

• All responses must be typed double-spaced, using a standard font (i.e. Times New Roman) and 12 point type size for ease of reading and grading.

Submitting Your Unit Examinations by Mail

Send your completed unit examination along with any writing assignments to the following mailing address:

California Coast University Testing Department 925 N. Spurgeon Street Santa Ana, CA 92701

 

 

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Requests to retake a unit examination will only be honored if the final exam has NOT been sent.

Students may retake one unit examination per course, free of charge. The cost for each additional, repeated exam will be $90. Payment must be paid in full to the accounting department prior to repeating unit exams.

Please contact Student Services for a repeat unit examination form. You may resubmit your unit examination once the original grade has been cleared from your online degree plan.

Final Examination

Scheduling a Final Examination

Final examination requests can be submitted via U.S. mail, online through the Coast Connection student portal, or by calling the Testing Department at (714) 547-9625.

A final exam scheduling form is located on the last page of this study guide. Please fill out ALL required fields and mail it to the university.

If you would like to request a final exam online, log into the Coast Connection student portal and click on My Academic Plan. Select the course you are working on and submit the Final Exam Request form located at the bottom of the page. ALL INFORMATION MUST BE FILLED IN.

Submitting Your Final Examination

Final Examinations can be submitted by mail, fax or online through the Coast Connection student portal.

After you have completed your exam, you or your proctor can fax it to the Grading Department at (714) 547-1451 or mail it to the university. When faxing exams, please do not resize your fax.

For online submissions, once you have logged into the student portal, click on My Academic Plan and select the course you are working on to complete the final examination. You must input the unique password that was sent to your proctor in order to unlock your final examination questions. Remember to keep a copy of your answers for your own personal records.

Proctors

The university requires that all final examinations be completed under the supervision of a proctor.

 

 

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A proctor can be anyone EXCEPT an immediate family member, someone who resides with you or a current/former CCU student.

The purpose of the proctored final examination is to verify that you are, in fact, the person who is enrolled in the course of study. It is also to verify that you are completing the final examination without the aid of any outside assistance.

During the proctored final examination, you may use your textbook and any notes you have taken during the completion of your unit examinations. Your designated proctor will verify your identity and that you have completed the final examination without any outside assistance.

Your Overall Grade Point Average (G.P.A.)

In addition to receiving a passing grade for each course, all students must maintain a required overall G.P.A. in order to graduate. Undergraduate students need an overall G.P.A. of 2.0 (C) on a 4.0 scale. Graduate and doctoral students need an overall G.P.A. of 3.0 (B) on a 4.0 scale.

A = 4 grade points B = 3 grade points C = 2 grade points D = 1 grade point F = 0 grade points

Students who do not meet the overall G.P.A. requirement by the end of their program must pay the current cost of tuition to repeat courses until they improve their overall G.P.A.

Overall course grades of “F” will be displayed on your degree plan and count as 0 units completed. You must pay to retake these courses.

Doctoral students must repeat any courses in which the overall course grade is a “D” or “F”.

Be sure to keep a copy of all work you submit to the university.

 

 

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If you have any questions about how to proceed through the course or regarding any California Coast University policies and procedures, the easiest way to get help is to send us a message through the student portal, via email, or phone the university.

University office hours are Monday through Friday from 8:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m., Pacific Standard Time.

California Coast University

925 N. Spurgeon Street, Santa Ana, California 92701 Phone: (714) 547-9625 Fax: (714) 547-5777 Test Answer Sheet Fax Line: (714) 547-1451

Email: testing@calcoast.edu

Don’t forget: You are not alone! We are here to help you achieve your dream!

GE D

21 2

 

 

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Learning Objectives

The learning objectives for this course are listed below:

Chapter 1 What is Philosophy?

1. Define the term philosophy. 2. Understand the most fundamental issues that philosophy investigates. 3. Describe the main branches of philosophy. 4. Understand how studying philosophy will strengthen your analytic abilities.

Chapter 2 Philosophical Thinking

1. Understand the concepts of analytic thinking. 2. Describe what is necessary in critical thinking. 3. Define an argument and the necessary components of an argument. 4. Define the concept of logic. 5. Describe logical errors and list the various types of informal fallacies.

Chapter 3 The Case for Determinism

1. Describe the issue of free will versus determinism. 2. Understand the basic views of determinists. 3. Define the terms predestination and fatalism. 4. Understand the theories of B.F. Skinner and Sigmund Freud as it relates to determinism. 5. Describe the three parts of personality as defined by Freud.

Chapter 4 The Case for Freedom

1. Understand Aristotle’s views on voluntary versus involuntary action. 2. Describe William James’s pragmatic defense. 3. Explain Jean-Paul Sartre implication of metaphysical doctrine that “’existence precedes essence”. 4. Understand Albert Ellis’s views on our beliefs about the world.

Chapter 5 Right and Wrong

1. Describe the difference between a results-oriented and an act-oriented outlook on ethics. 2. Describe how utilitarianism argues that the ethical character of an action depends on how much pleasure or pain results from it. 3. Understand the views of John Stuart Mill on the importance of looking at long-term as well as short-term consequences. 4. Explain Immanuel Kant’s views on the concept of duty for a deontological thinker. 5. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the teleological and deontological approach of ethics.

 

 

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Chapter 6 Why Be Ethical?

1. Understand the idea that “virtue is the health of soul.” 2. Describe the three components of a human’s soul according to Plato. 3. Explain why Socrates believes that unethical actions actually harm the person who per- forms them.

Chapter 7 Democracy

1. Define social contract and how it is a critical concept for harmonizing freedom and obliga- tion. 2. Describe Locke’s understand of tacit consent. 3. Describe Plato’s criticism of democracy. 4. Define intellectual aristocracy. 5. Understand B.F. Skinner’s recommendation of a nondemocratic government.

Chapter 8 The Nature of Reality

1. Distinguish a “’mathematical reality” to a “physical reality.” 2. Describe the various explanations of reality based on the idea of a single underlying ele- ment. 3. Define objective idealism. 4. Describe Plato’s theory of the Forms.

Chapter 9 What Is Knowledge?

1. Describe the major beliefs of the Rationalism school of thought. 2. Describe the major beliefs of the Empiricism school of thought. 3. Understand John Locke’s views of the mind as a blank piece of paper. 4. Explain David Hume’s thoughts about the extent of our certainty.

Chapter 10 Does God Exist?

1. Describe the major empirical arguments for the existence of God. 2. Explain William Paley’s “argument from design.” 3. Describe St.Anselm’s “ontological argument” about the existence of God. 4. Describe the major rationalistic arguments for the existence of God.

 

 

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Chapter 11 The Purpose of Life: Marx and Buddha

1. Describe the beliefs of Karl Marx, in regards to “what should we strive for in life?” 2. Understand Marx’s views on capitalism. 3. Explain the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path in Buddhism. 4. Distinguish between the contemporary Western concepts of happiness versus the Bud- dhism concepts of happiness.

Chapter 12 Scientific Explanations of Reality

1. Understand Isaac Newton’s mechanistic account of the universe. 2. Describe Einstein’s theory of the speed of light. 3. Understand Einstein’s theory of relativity.

Chapter 13 Does Gender Affect How We Think?

1. Understand Perry’s impartial and objective model of knowledge. 2. Describe Kohlberg’s predominant ethic of justice. 3. Explain Carol Gilligan’s suggestions of an ethic of care.

Chapter 14 Is A Dolphin A Person?

1. Understand the concept that humans are the only candidates for personhood. 2. Describe the concepts needed for personhood. 3. Explain the reasons why dolphins are likely candidates for personhood. 4. Understand the possible ethical acceptability of the death and injuries of dolphins by humans.

 

 

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Suggested Online Readings

http://www.asimovonline.com/

http://home.pcisys.net/~jnf/

http://socrates.clarke.edu/

http://www.friesian.com/greek.htm

http://www.iep.utm.edu/d/diogsino.htm

http://www.dalailama.com/

http://www.hegel.org/

http://www.tocqueville.org/

http://www.whydemocracy.net/

http://thoreau.eserver.org/

http://www.buddhanet.net/

http://www.nrogers.com/carlrogersbio.html

http://www.leninimports.com/sartre.html

http://www.philosophypages.com/ph/kant.htm

http://www.wittgenstein-portal.com/

http://www.alberteinstein.info/

http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Pythagoras.html

http://www.spaceandmotion.com/quantum-theory-werner-heisenberg-quotes.htm

http://galileo.rice.edu/

 

 

Table of Contents

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Syllabus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i-xxiii

Unit One Chapter 1: What is Philosophy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10

Chapter 2: Philosophical Thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20

Chapter 3: The Case for Determinism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-31

Chapter 4: The Case for Freedom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-42

Unit 1 Examination Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Unit 1 Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44-47

Unit 1 Essay Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48-49

Unit Two

Chapter 5: Right and Wrong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-60

Chapter 6: Why Be Ethical? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61-70

Chapter 7: Democracy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71-82

Unit 2 Examination Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

Unit 2 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84-87

Unit 2 Essay Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88-89

Unit Three

Chapter 8: The Nature of Reality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90-100

Chapter 9: What Is Knowledge? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101-112

Chapter 10: Does God Exist? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113-123

Chapter 11: The Purpose of Life: Marx and Buddha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124-134

Unit 3 Examination Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

Unit 3 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136-139

Unit 3 Essay Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140-141

Unit Four Chapter 12: Scientific Explanations of Reality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142-152

Chapter 13: Does Gender Affect How We Think? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153-164

Chapter 14: Is A Dolphin A Person?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165-173

Unit 4 Examination Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

Unit 4 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175-178

 

 

Table of Contents

xxxiv

Introduction to Philosophy

Unit 4 Essay Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179-180

Final Examination Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

Forms

Request for Help Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

Test Item Challenge Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183-184

Final Examination Scheduling Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

 

 

Objectives

1

Introduction to Philosophy

Chapter Number One What is Philosophy?

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Define the term philosophy.

2. Understand the most fundamental issues that philosophy investigates.

3. Describe the main branches of philosophy.

4. Understand how studying philosophy will strengthen your analytic abilities.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 1-14 of your textbook

• Reference: Discovering Philosophy, Portfolio by: Thomas I. White, 2ND Edition.

 

 

Overview

2

Introduction to Philosophy

Chapter 1 introduces you to main issues and branches of philosophy. The chapter begins with a basic definition of philosophy. Philosophy is an activity, and addresses life’s most basic ques- tions. Students are introduced to the fundamental issues, such as the nature of reality, free will, knowledge and the existence of God. The chapter also lays out the main branches of philosophy, including logic, metaphysics, epistemology, political philosophy and ethics.

 

 

Key Terms

3

Introduction to Philosophy

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Philosophy:

Metaphysics:

Epistemology:

Ethics:

Political Philosophy:

Logic:

 

 

Summary

4

Introduction to Philosophy

A definition • The word philosophy derives from two ancient Greek words: Philia: love Sophia: wisdom • Philosophy means “love of wisdom”

What is Philosophy About? • Philosophy is thinking • Philosophers think about life’s most basic questions: What is the purpose of life? Is there a God? How do we know the difference between right and wrong? Are our actions free or determined? • Doing philosophy is one of the most common activities of life • Philosophy is active, not passive

The Basic Issues • The Fundamental Issues • Reality • What is the nature of reality? • Personhood • What does it mean to be a person? • Free Will • How free are we? • Knowledge • What is involved in knowing something? • God, Life After Death, The Purpose of Life • Where did it all come from? • What is the purpose of life? • Practical Issues • Right and Wrong • How do we separate right from wrong? • Community organization • What kind of government do you want? • The subject matter of Philosophy • Philosophical Questions • Involve conceptual issues • Philosophical “Answers” • Generally more than one plausible answer • The Parts of Philosophy • Metaphysics • Epistemology • Ethics • Political philosophy • Logic

 

 

Summary

5

Introduction to Philosophy

Why Studying Philosophy Is Valuable • Analytical Abilities • Development better analytical abilities • Useful in a variety of professions • Vision and insight • Socrates-“The unexamined life is not worth living”

 

 

Self Test

6

Introduction to Philosophy

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1. Philosophical questions are primarily_____.

A. factual B. empirical C. conceptual D. subjective

2. Philosophical questions _____.

A. have a single, correct, logical answer B. are solved by using a scientific, empirical methodology C. are solved by appealing to philosophical authorities D. generally have more than one plausible answer

3. The branch of philosophy that studies knowledge is _____.

A. ethics B. metaphysics C. epistemology D. logic E. political philosophy

4. The value of studying philosophy is that it _____.

A. teaches you how to argue so well that you can make a bad case look good B. develops your analytical abilities and your capacity for abstract thought C. strengthens your emotions D. makes you a more ethical person

5. The Greek philosopher Socrates said, _____.

A. “He who dies with the most toys wins” B. “The examined life is not worth living” C. “The unexamined life is not worth living” D. “Philosophy makes the examined life unnecessary”

6. Metaphysics is the study of right and wrong.

A. True B. False

 

 

Self Test

7

Introduction to Philosophy

7. Logic is the study of reason and arguments.

A. True B. False

8. Philosophy studies life’s most basic questions.

A. True B. False

9. Philosophical questions are primarily subjective in nature.

A. True B. False

10. The value of studying philosophy is that it develops your analytical abilities and your capacity for abstract thought.

A. True B. False

 

 

Answer Keys

8

Introduction to Philosophy

Key Term Definitions

Philosophy: An active, intellectual enterprise dedicated to exploring the most fundamental ques- tions of life

Metaphysics: The part of philosophy concerned with the most basic issues. It was originally re- ferred to by Aristotle as “first philosophy.” Epistemology: The study of knowledge. Ethics: The study of right and wrong also referred to as “moral philosophy.

Political Philosophy: The study of how we live together in communities, and deals with problems of harmonizing freedom and obligation.

Logic: The study of reason and arguments.

 

 

Answer Keys

9

Introduction to Philosophy

Answers to Self Test

1. C

2. D

3. C

4. B

5. C

6. B

7. A

8. A

9. B

10. A

 

 

Notes

10

Introduction to Philosophy

 

 

Objectives

11

Introduction to Philosophy

Chapter Number Two Philosophical Thinking

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Understand the concepts of analytic thinking.

2. Describe what is necessary in critical thinking.

3. Define an argument and the necessary components of an argument.

4. Define the concept of logic.

5. Describe logical errors and list the various types of informal fallacies.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 15-55 of your textbook

• Reference: Discovering Philosophy, Portfolio by: Thomas I. White, 2ND Edition

 

 

Overview

12

Introduction to Philosophy

Philosophers use both analytical and critical thinking. Analytical thinking uses necessary and suf- ficient conditions to show something is an example of that concept. Critical thinking tests to see if a claim is convincing, checking on solid facts and good reasons. The primary focus of critical thinking is on arguments. Logic establishes guidelines for arguments in the form of formal and informal fallacies.

 

 

Key Terms

13

Introduction to Philosophy

Analytical Thinking:

Critical Thinking: Necessary Conditions:

Sufficient Conditions:

Argument:

Premises:

Conclusion:

Fallacies:

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

 

 

Summary

14

Introduction to Philosophy

Analytical Thinking • Necessary and sufficient conditions • Necessary conditions • The properties that “absolutely, positively” must be present as a condition for something count as an example of the concept in question • Sufficient conditions • All the necessary conditions put together • Example: the concept of a square • Four sides (eliminates none) • 2 pairs parallel (eliminates B) • sides equal (eliminates A) • four 90 degree angles (eliminates C) • Example: hearing music from your Walkman (i-pod) • C and D are irrelevant • A, B, E, F, and G are each necessary • A conceptual example: Personhood • 10 necessary conditions • helps aid in discussion of ethical issues

Critical Thinking

• Definition • To judge whether a claim is convincing • What is an Argument? • A rational attempt to prove a point by offering reasons or evidence • What is Logic? • A thinking code: guidelines and rules for arguments • Logic and wizards • Riddle of the seven bottles • Riddle solved by logic, not magic • Look for clues • Logic puzzle • Part one: solving the puzzle with Hermione • Part two: Hermione’s solution and logic • Premises • Conclusion • Good logical thinking and rules • Modus Ponens • If A, then B • It is A, therefore B • Modus Tollens • If A, then B • NOT B, so NOT A • Formal Fallacies • Denying the antecedent • If A, then B • NOT A, so NOT B • Informal Fallacies • The Dialogue • A thicket of faulty thinking

 

 

Summary

15

Introduction to Philosophy

• Ambiguity • A term that has more than one meaning • Ambiguity Again • Hasty Conclusion, Incomplete Evidence • Trying to prove too much from your evidence • Ad Hominem • Arguing against the person • Contradiction: A Structural Fallacy • Asserting or implying directly opposite statements • Questionable Cause • Drawing an unwarranted conclusion about the cause of something • Questionable Cause: Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc • Assuming the just because one thing preceded the other, it must have caused it • Denying the Antecedent: A Structural Fallacy • If the antecedent is not true, then neither is the consequent • Contrary-to-Fact Conditional • If past events had been different, results would have been different • Hasty Conclusion and Incomplete Evidence Again • Irrelevant Reason, Questionable Conclusion, and Straw Man • Distorting opponent’s position • Begging the Question • Assuming to be true what the argument is supposed to prove as true • Appeal to Authority • Relying on the authority of its source • Slippery Slope • One event will trigger a chain reaction • False Analogy • Using a comparison that does not fit the case at hand • Questionable Cause or Irrelevant Reason • False Dilemma • Claiming there are fewer options than is actually the case • Appeal to Emotions • Trying to appeal to feelings, rather than our minds • Appeal to Religious Authority • Accent, Unknowable Fact • Implying something by the way that speaker states a point • Unwarranted Generalization • Having insufficient grounds to generalize • Slippery Slope • Emotional Language: Sexism and Name-Calling • Using emotionally charged words to distort the account • Guilt by Association • Linking the person with unsavory friends or associates • Statistical Fallacy, Popularity • Using questionable statistics to reach unwarranted conclusions • Unwarranted, Sweeping Generalization, Again • Appeal to Ignorance • Claiming something is true because it cannot be proven false

 

 

Self Test

16

Introduction to Philosophy

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1. Critical thinking aims to _____.

A. find fault with the theories of other thinkers B. make authoritative pronouncements C. judge whether a claim is convincing D. persuade people by manipulating their emotions

2. A philosophical argument is _____.

A. a rational attempt to prove a point by offering reasons or evidence B. an emotional attempt to sway the feelings of your audience so that they agree with you C. a shouting match between two philosophers D. an exploration of a philosophical problem using analytical thought and showing that no solution is possible

3. Identify the fallacy in the following passage: The Governor’s chief aide was convicted of influence peddling. The Governor herself is no doubt just as corrupt.

A. unknowable fact B. guilt by association C. ad hominem D. contradiction

4. Which of the following is a necessary condition for driving a car legally?

A. having a valid driver’s license B. owning the car outright C. having a valid registration certificate D. having your car payments up to date

5. Identify the fallacy in the following passage: There are rumors that the Senator is homosexual. In light of this, his position on the defense budget and foreign policy must obviously be rejected.

A. ambiguity B. unknowable fact C. contradiction D. ad hominem

 

 

Self Test

17

Introduction to Philosophy

6. A(n)______ fallacy involves an argument’s logical structure.

A. Formal B. Informal C. Structural D. Logical

7. A(n) ________ fallacy involves an argument’s subject matter.

A. Formal B. Informal C. Structural D. Logical

8. The two parts of an argument are _____ and ______.

A. Premises and conclusion B. Introduction and conclusion C. Premises and introduction D. Facts and conclusion

9. Another word for the facts, evidence, theories, or ideas that allegedly lead to an argu- ment’s claim is _____.

A. Premises B. Logic C. Conclusion D. None of the above

10. If it’s sunny, Jennifer goes surfing. Jennifer went surfing today. Therefore, it must have been sunny. This is an excellent illustration of __________, a formal fallacy.

A. Affirming the consequent B. Deffirming the consequent C. Making a logical claim D. Making a premise

 

 

Answer Keys

18

Introduction to Philosophy

Key Term Definitions

Analytical Thinking: The process of uncovering a concept’s defining characteristics.

Critical Thinking: Judging whether some claim is believable and convincing. Necessary Conditions: Those properties that must be present for something to be an example of the concept in question.

Sufficient Conditions: The set of necessary conditions of a concept that, if met, qualify something as an example of a particular concept.

Argument: A series of statements that you make orally or in writing, one of which is a claim of some sort, and the rest of which are your reasons for making this claim.

Premises: The reasons that lead to the conclusion of an argument.

Conclusion: The argument’s claim, point or result.

Fallacies: Weaknesses or mistakes in argumentation. “Formal” fallacies deal with an argument’s logical structure. “Informal” fallacies deal with an argument’s subject matter.

 

 

Answer Keys

19

Introduction to Philosophy

Answers to Self Test

1. C

2. A

3. B

4. A

5. D

6. A

7. B

8. A

9. A

10. A

 

 

Notes

20

Introduction to Philosophy

 

 

Objectives

21

Introduction to Philosophy

Chapter Number Three The Case for Determinism

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Describe the issue of free will versus determinism.

2. Understand the basic views of determinists.

3. Define the terms predestination and fatalism.

4. Understand the theories of B.F. Skinner and Sigmund Freud as it relates to determinism.

5. Describe the three parts of personality as defined by Freud.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 57-84 of your textbook

• Reference: Discovering Philosophy, Portfolio by: Thomas I. White, 2ND Edition

 

 

Overview

22

Introduction to Philosophy

One of the most important questions of our human existence is connected with freedom and deter- minism. The theory of free will says that all our decisions are made freely. The theory of determin- ism says that our actions are controlled by internal and external forces beyond our control. Accord- ing to determinism, all actions have a cause. Determinism differs from fate and predestination in that determinism relies on natural forces.

Determinism raises the question of how much we can hold each other responsible for our actions, with two of the strongest proponents of this theory being B. F. Skinner and Sigmund Freud. Skin- ner’s theory of behaviorism looks at behavior in terms of cause and effect. In Freud’s theory, the unconscious is responsible for almost everything we do. Freud looks at the three parts of the personality, and says we don’t choose the way we are.

 

 

Key Terms

23

Introduction to Philosophy

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Free Will:

Determinism:

Materialism: Predestination:

Fatalism:

Behaviorism:

Freudianism:

 

 

Summary

24

Introduction to Philosophy

• What do we mean by Freedom? • Constrained by Force • Physically forced to make a decision • The wallet owner forcing you to hand it over • Constrained by Pressure • Pressure from those around us • Constrained by Feelings • Feeling from within ourselves • The Contradiction: Freedom and Determinism • Claim freedom, but concede determinism • What do we mean by Determinism? • Determinism, Science, and Materialism • Materialism • The idea that all things are physical • Nothing immaterial exists • All physical things are subject to natural laws like cause and effect • Astrology • Our actions and fates are caused by celestial objects • Sun, planets, and constellations • Determinism, Predestination, and Fate • Predestination • Our final destination—heaven or hell—is already logged into the heavenly computer • Fatalism • Destiny will bring people together • Oedipus the King • Determinism in Practice • Getting an extension on your paper • Pushing the right buttons to get the desired response • Freedom, Determinism and Responsibility • The idea of responsibility at the heart of free will • Determinism allows for the possibility of limited or no responsibility for actions • Determinism: The Argument from Psychology • Four good reasons to approach this from a psychological perspective • Philosophical issues not limited to books or classes • Psychology developed out of philosophy • Psychology examines the authenticity of feeling free • Skinner and Freud present very convincing arguments for determinism • Determinism: B. F. Skinner and Behaviorism • Behaviorism • Focuses on human observable behavior and denies free will • Whatever Happened to Freedom? • Castle’s Conditioning • Drops matches to prove Frazier wrong • Result of positive reinforcement from other times where he was praised when he proved colleagues wrong • Human Freedom and the Weather • Weather forecasting imprecise due to lack of information • Behavior prediction imprecise due to lack of information • Conditioning and Happiness

 

 

Summary

25

Introduction to Philosophy

• Conditioning has limits • Enough negative reinforcement cause revolt • Conditioning: An Experiment • Conditioning one of your instructors • Positive reinforcement for using chalk • Negative reinforcement when not • Determinism: Freud and Control by the Unconscious • Freud as one of the most important figures in the history of western thought • Patients had problems with no medical cause • Used free association to uncover feelings causing their illness • The Conscious, the Preconscious, and the Unconscious • Freudianism proposes three aspects to our personality • Conscious • What we are aware of from moment to moment • Preconscious • A data bank where people store memories, thoughts, and feelings that people can easily retrieve and make conscious • Unconscious • The part of our personality of which we are not aware, but influences our thoughts and actions • Biggest part of the personality • Tip of the iceberg • Expressions of the Unconscious • Freudian slips • Dreams • The Unconscious and Determinism • The power of advertising • The Structure of the Personality • The id • The most deeply buried part of the unconscious • Two basic drives; sex and aggression • Irrational and unrealistic • The ego • Something close to the self • Controls the id • Horse and rider • The superego • A part of the unconscious over and above the ego • Riding instructor • Inner criticism • Personality Structure and Determinism • Ego moves to reduce anxiety as a reflex action • All this goes on without our knowledge • Defense Mechanisms and Determinism • Projection is where we attribute our feelings to someone else • Reaction formation takes a disturbing impulse and converts it into its opposite • The Unconscious and the Power of the Past • The effect of early childhood experiences have on adult personality • Needs of childhood need to be met be before moving into next stage of develop ment

 

 

Summary

26

Introduction to Philosophy

• Psychoanalysis and Happiness • Psychoanalysis is a process where the patient talks freely about thoughts and feel- ings • Unconscious forces can be re-channeled in a better direction • Determinism and Responsibility • Neither thinker puts much weight on nations of blame or moral responsibility • Determinism: A Final Word • Strongest argument is that it is scientific • Times that our will prevails

 

 

Self Test

27

Introduction to Philosophy

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1. The doctrine of free will maintains that _____.

A. our actions result from internal or external causes beyond our control B. our actions result from the combination of external causation and internal free choice C. our actions are in our control and result from internal deliberation and choice D. our actions are out of our control but result from God’s free will

2. The doctrine of determinism maintains that _____.

A. our actions result from internal or external causes beyond our control B. our actions result from the combination of external causation and internal free choice C. our actions are in our control and result from internal deliberation and choice D. our actions are out of our control but result from God’s free will

3. According to Freudianism, the human personality is comprised of three parts:

A. stimulus, response, and reinforcer B. ego, positive reinforcer, and negative reinforcer C. conscience, un-conscience, and ego D. the id, ego, and superego

4. According to Freud, our sense of morality comes from the _____ and its feelings of _____.

A. id/revenge B. conscience/mercy C. superego/justice D. superego/guilt

5. Behaviorism is the school of psychology that _____.

A. claims that human action is determined by individual free choice B. denies free will and sees human action as the response to an external stimulus C. explains that human actions result from the behavior of the id and superego D. explains that human behavior is determined by the genetic coding in human DNA

6. The _____is the main conscious element of the personality and tries to mediate be- tween the unrestrained desires of the superego and the punishing demands of the id for moral perfection.

A. Guilt B. Ego C. Free will D. Determinism

 

 

Self Test

28

Introduction to Philosophy

7. The inner feeling of freedom that we all have supports the theory of _____.

A. Guilt B. Behaviorism C. Free Will D. Determinism

8. The ancient Greek story of Oedipus, who, no matter how hard he tries, cannot avoid his tragic destiny, is an example of the theory of _____.

A. Fatalism B. Behaviorism C. Free will D. Determinism

9. The idea that there is one special person somewhere in the world that is your destiny to meet and fall in love with is an example of ______.

A. Fatalism B. Behaviorism C. Free Will D. Determinism

10. A theory that claims that all human behavior is the result of scientifically identifiable natural forces is an example of _____.

A. Fatalism B. Behaviorism C. Free Will D. Determinism

 

 

Answer Keys

29

Introduction to Philosophy

Key Term Definitions

Free Will: A theory that claims that we have control over our actions. Our actions are a product of internal deliberation and choice.

Determinism: A theory that says that everything happens as a result of cause and effect. Our ac- tions and our choices are simply the result of preexisting causes that produce them.

Materialism: A theory about the nature of reality that if something exists, it must be physical. Ma- terial objects are subject to natural laws like cause and effect. Predestination: The religious belief that God has decided from the beginning of time who will be saved and who will be damned. This cannot be changed by what we do in life.

Fatalism: Fatalism argues that the universe is governed by forces beyond our control. These forces determine our very existence.

Behaviorism: A school of psychology that focuses on observable behavior and denies free will. Ac- tions are seen as a response to stimulus. A recurring behavior is encouraged by positive reinforce- ment, and discouraged by negative reinforcement.

Freudianism: This a largely deterministic, psychological theory developed by Sigmund Freud that claims that behavior is ultimately determined by unconscious primal drives, and the interplay of the three parts of the personality; the id, the ego, and the superego.

 

 

Answer Keys

30

Introduction to Philosophy

Answers to Self Test

1. C

2. A

3. D

4. D

5. B

6. B

7. C

8. A

9. A

10. D

 

 

Notes

31

Introduction to Philosophy

 

 

Objectives

32

Introduction to Philosophy

Chapter Number Four The Case for Freedom

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Understand Aristotle’s views on voluntary versus involuntary action.

2. Describe William James’s pragmatic defense.

3. Explain Jean-Paul Sartre implication of metaphysical doc- trine that “’existence precedes essence.”

4. Understand Albert Ellis’s views on our beliefs about the world.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 85-115 of your textbook

• Reference: Discovering Philosophy, Portfolio by: Thomas I. White, 2ND Edition

 

 

Overview

33

Introduction to Philosophy

Free will is defended in many ways. Aristotle believes we are responsible for all voluntary actions. Our actions we chose determine our personality. William James maintains that freedom gives us a more satisfying and rational account of experience than determinism does. Feelings of regret sug- gest that determinism is an inadequate account of human actions.

Sartre gives the most extreme defense of freedom by arguing that we are totally free to make our own choices. Freedom is so inescapable that it is sometimes uncomfortable, and that we are “condemned to be free.” To fail to live up to that responsibility is to act in “bad faith.” Albert El- lis defends freedom by means of psychology. Rational-emotive therapy holds that the only barrier to our freedom is how we think. Ellis believes that if we challenge our irrational beliefs, we can increase the range of our actions.

 

 

Key Terms

34

Introduction to Philosophy

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Voluntary:

Involuntary:

Pragmatism:

Indeterminism:

Existentialism:

Essence precedes existence:

Existence precedes essence:

Rational-emotive theory:

Stoicism:

 

 

Summary

35

Introduction to Philosophy

• Aristotle: The Commonsense Philosopher • Voluntary and Involuntary Acts • Culpable Ignorance and Negligence • Persons should have known the law • Actions or Character: Which Comes First? • Actions determine character • Richard’s Last Try: The Perception of Good • “what’s good for me is a little off” • Person is responsible for his perception of good • Aristotle and Freedom • Most of our actions are voluntary, free choices • William James: The Pragmatic Philosopher • Pragmatism and Freedom • Pragmatism: the more rational concept is truer • Freedom simply “works” better than determinism • Inner feeling of freedom • Rational and Satisfying Explanations • Broader definition of rational • Includes more subjective human responses • Ethical decisions • Indeterminism • Indeterminism and Possibilities • Decisions feel possible • Choices are real and the outcome unknown • More than one choice is always possible • Pragmatism and Possibilities • Determinism believing one possibility impossible • Nothing suggests one should be impossible • Events can’t be explained by looking back • Feelings of “Regret” • Events that we regret our choices • Trying to lay decisions on determinism as a bad fit • Our regret proves our belief in free choice • James and Freedom • Not possible to prove freedom or determinism • Mind is more satisfied with the idea that genuine choices are real • Jean-Paul Sartre: The Existentialist Philosopher • Movie house and a gunman forcing you inside • Free to choose? • Extreme Freedom and Existentialism • Existentialism argues that we are totally free • Freedom is so extreme that is may seem unbelievable • Sartre and Existentialism • Sartre is a French philosopher with straightforward ideas • God does not Exist • Rejects the idea that natural evolutionary or inner psychological forces determine human responses • Essence Precedes Existence • Sartre rejects the philosophical belief the nature of something determines the pos- sibilities of everyday life

 

 

Summary

36

Introduction to Philosophy

• Existence precedes Essence • What we choose to do determines our nature • There is no reality except action • Life gets its meaning from what we do with it • Human Imagination and Creativity • Certain biological needs and limitations set for all humans • We transcend our limitations by imagination, intellect, will, desire, and the free- dom to choose • Condemned to be Free • We have no choice • We are trapped • We can never escape it • Responsibility and “Bad Faith” • Lying to ourselves about or responsibility • Not to decide is to decide • The extent of our Responsibility • Our own responsibility is total • The responsibility of an individual person for a war • The Extent of Our Power • We have more power over things than we think we do • How other people treat you • An important issue an campus • Sartre and Freedom • Man is freedom • Albert Ellis: Freedom Through Right Thinking • Rational Emotive theory • Ellis’s Thought • The barriers to happiness lie inside our minds • Fears stem from wrong thinking • Correcting irrational beliefs can make changes in our lives • Emotions and Reason • We control how we respond emotionally to situations • An activating experience (A) produces an emotional consequence (C) because of what’s in our belief system (B) • Irrational Beliefs • Many of the ideas in our belief system are irrational • Fear of public speaking • Irrational Beliefs and a Lack of Freedom • If we want to maximize freedom, we have to rid ourselves of the irrational beliefs that hold us back • Challenging Irrational Beliefs • Recognize irrational beliefs • Identify them • Prove that these ideas are wrong • Ellis’s Debt to Stoicism • Stoicism was founded in Athens • Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius • Happy soul is the undisturbed soul

 

 

Summary

37

Introduction to Philosophy

• Be unaffected by things beyond human control • We can exercise control over our inner world • Freedom Versus Determinism: A Closing Word • Both make strong cases • Both sides can’t be right

 

 

Self Test

38

Introduction to Philosophy

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1. According to Aristotle, we are “responsible” for _____.

A. all voluntary actions, except those caused by culpable ignorance B. all voluntary actions, except those caused by negligence C. all voluntary actions D. all involuntary actions

2. _____ the psychologists Skinner and Freud, Albert Ellis, who is also a psychologist, _____.

A. Unlike; concedes that we have little freedom B. Like; concedes that we have little freedom C. Unlike; believes in individual freedom D. Like; believes in individual freedom

3. Aristotle believes that we become just by _____.

A. performing just actions B. understanding the nature of justice C. studying the laws of our society D. subjecting ourselves to punishment when we are unjust

4. As far as what counts as an acceptable explanation, James _____.

A. argues we must allow only scientific, empirical facts B. specifically rules out internal, subjective feelings C. argues we must allow only subjective human responses D. accepts the importance of logic and science, but allows subjective human responses

5. Sartre’s core idea is _____.

A. “man is freedom” B. “man is totally bereft of freedom” C. “man is freedom if he so chooses” D. “man is bad faith”

6. _____ believes that irrational beliefs are the greatest threat to our freedom.

A. Ellis B. Skinner C. Freud D. Aristotle

 

 

Self Test

39

Introduction to Philosophy

7. _____is the position that holds that in any circumstance, we genuinely have more than one option from which to choose.

A. Existentialism B. Indeterminism C. Pragmatism D. Determinism

8. ______ claims that freedom is so inescapable that it is sometimes uncomfortable, which is why Sartre wrote that we are “condemned to be free.”

A. Existentialism B. Indeterminism C. Pragmatism D. Determinism

9. William James is the most important representative of _____, the school of thought that claims that what is true is what “works.”

A. Existentialism B. Indeterminism C. Pragmatism D. Determinism

10. Sartre accepts the idea that _______________, that is, the theory that our choices determine our nature.

A. Existence precedes essence B. Essence precedes existence C. The concept of existence does not exists D. None of the above

 

 

Answer Keys

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Introduction to Philosophy

Key Term Definitions

Voluntary: Actions that are under our control. This includes habits or dispositions that seem to be out of our control. This includes actions done out of culpable ignorance or negligence. Aristotle thinks we are responsible for all voluntary actions.

Involuntary: Actions that result from constraint or ignorance.

Pragmatism: A school of thought that takes a practical and inclusive approach to solving philo- sophical problems. James defends free will as an explanation that simply “works better.”

Indeterminism: A position that in any circumstance we genuinely have more than one option from which to choose.

Existentialism: Argues that our nature is determined by the actions we choose. Existentialism argues that freedom is uncomfortable and unavoidable, so much that we are “condemned to be free.”

Essence Precedes Existence: A traditional philosophical belief that states that the “nature” of something determines what it is able to do, its limitations, that is its “existence.”

Existence precedes essence: The existentialist belief that rejects the traditional idea of something’s nature determining its abilities. Existentialism maintains that our choices determine our nature.

Rational-emotive theory: A theory developed by Albert Ellis under the influence of stoicism. Ellis maintains that our greatest barrier to freedom is irrational beliefs, and proposes a way of letting them go.

Stoicism: A school of philosophy that believes that the world is governed by fate. Happiness is achieved by cultivating a disposition of courageous acceptance.

 

 

Answer Keys

41

Introduction to Philosophy

Answers to Self Test

1. C

2. C

3. A

4. C

5. A

6. A

7. B

8. A

9. C

10. A

 

 

Notes

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Introduction to Philosophy

 

 

Unit 1 Examination Instructions

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Introduction to Philosophy

The Unit Examination

The Unit Examination contains 25 questions, either multiple choice or true/false as well as a writing assignment.

Your grade on the examination will be determined by the percentage of correct answers. There is no penalty for guessing. The University utilizes the following grading system:

A = 90% – 100% correct B = 80% – 89% correct C = 70% – 79% correct D = 60% – 69% correct F = 59% and below correct

4 grade points 3 grade points 2 grade points 1 grade point 0 grade points

Completing Unit One Examination

Before beginning your examination, we recommend that you thor- oughly review the textbook chapters and other materials covered in each Unit and following the suggestions in the “Mastering the Course Content” section of the course Syllabus.

This Unit Examination consists of objective test questions as well as a comprehensive writing assignment selected to reflect the Learning Objectives identified in each chapter covered so far in your textbook.

Additional detailed information on completing the examination, writ- ing standards, how to challenge test items and how to submit your completed examination may be found in the Syllabus for this course. If you have additional questions feel free to contact Student Services at (714) 547-9625.

 

 

Unit 1 Examination

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Introduction to Philosophy

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Logic is the study of reason and arguments.

A. True B. False

2. Philosophy studies life’s most basic questions.

A. True B. False

3. Philosophical questions are primarily subjective in nature.

A. True B. False

4. The value of studying philosophy is that it develops your analytical abilities and your capacity for abstract thought.

A. True B. False

5. The word philosophy derives from two ancient Greek words: philia, which means love, and sophia, which means wisdom.

A. True B. False

6. Philosophical questions are conceptual in nature; __________ deal in probability and plausibility rather than absolute truth and falsehood.

A. Philosophical uncertainties B. Philosophical answers C. Philosophical doubts D. Philosophical statements

7. A major philosophical concept, ________________, deals with basic human character- istics and similar traits in other beings like chimpanzees and dolphins.

A. Personhood B. Selfhood C. Self-being D. Primitive self

 

 

Unit 1 Examination

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Introduction to Philosophy

8. A(n) ________ fallacy involves an argument’s subject matter.

A. Formal B. Informal C. Truth D. False

9. The two parts of an argument are _____.

A. Premises and conclusion B. Fact and conclusion C. Premises and falsehoods D. Facts and truths

10. Another word for the facts, evidence, theories, or ideas that allegedly lead to an argu- ment’s claim is _____.

A. Premises B. Conclusions C. Formal fallacy D. Informal fallacy

11. If it’s sunny, Jennifer goes surfing. Jennifer went surfing today. Therefore, it must have been sunny. This is an excellent illustration of affirming the consequent, a for- mal fallacy.

A. True B. False

12. “A square has four sides” is a necessary and sufficient condition for defining a square.

A. True B. False

13. The potions riddle in “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone” is an excellent example of logical thinking.

A. True B. False

 

 

Unit 1 Examination

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Introduction to Philosophy

14. If someone is a student at Hogwart’s, then he or she is studying witchcraft and wiz- ardry. Neville Longbottom is a student at Hogwart’s. Therefore, Neville Longbottom is studying witchcraft and wizardry. This is an excellent example of Modus Ponens, or the Asserting Rule.

A. True B. False

15. Analytical thinking is the philosophical application of psychoanalysis.

A. True B. False

16. Crossing the finish line first in a race in which you competed fairly and without cheat- ing is a necessary and sufficient condition for you to be the winner.

A. True B. False

17. The idea that there is one special person somewhere in the world that is your destiny to meet and fall in love with is an example of ______.

A. Fatalism B. Determinism C. Free will D. Pragmatism

18. A theory that claims that all human behavior is the result of scientifically identifiable natural forces is an example of _____.

A. Fatalism B. Determinism C. Free will D. Pragmatism

19. B.F. Skinner believes that human freedom is impossible.

A. True B. False

 

 

Unit 1 Examination

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Introduction to Philosophy

20. Freudianism claims that the human personality has neither conscious nor uncon- scious dimensions.

A. True B. False

21. A “Freudian slip” is an example of how the unconscious can determine what we say.

A. True B. False

22. Sartre accepts the idea that _______________, that is, the theory that our choices determine our nature.

A. Existence precedes essence B. Essence precedes existence C. Free will D. Determinism

23. The theory of free will implies about responsibility that because our actions result from our own choices, we are fully responsible for them.

A. True B. False

24. Aristotle agrees with the following statement: The more we understand people, the more we know how little responsibility they have for their actions.

A. True B. False

25. According to Ellis, irrational beliefs prove that determinism is correct.

A. True B. False

 

 

Unit 1 Examination

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Introduction to Philosophy

Written Assignment for Unit One Be sure to refer to the course syllabus for instructions on format, length, and other information on how to complete this assignment. Please answer ONE of the following:

1. Describe at least 3 types of informal fallacies.

2. Describe the theory of Determinism and list the main supporters of this theory.

3. According to Freud there are three components to the structure of personality. Name and describe these components.

4. Explain why Aristotle is known as the commonsense philosopher.

 

 

You Can Do It

49

Introduction to Philosophy

You have just completed Unit 1 of this course.

You are off to a great start! Keep up the good work!

 

 

Objectives

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Introduction to Philosophy

Instructions to Students

Chapter Number Five Right and Wrong

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Describe the difference between a results-oriented and an act-oriented outlook on ethics.

2. Describe how utilitarianism argues that the ethical character of an action depends on how much pleasure or pain results from it.

3. Understand the views of John Stuart Mill on the importance of looking at long-term as well as short-term consequences.

4. Explain Immanuel Kant’s views on the concept of duty for a deontological thinker.

5. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the teleologi- cal and deontological approach of ethics.

• Read pages 117-156 of your textbook

• Reference: Discovering Philosophy, Portfolio by: Thomas I. White, 2ND Edition

 

 

Overview

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Introduction to Philosophy

Ethics is the branch of Philosophy concerned with right and wrong. The ultimate standard is hu- man welfare. All humans have the same basic needs. There are two major approaches to ethics. The first approach, teleological ethics, claims that the rightness of an action depends on whether its consequences are positive or negative. Utilitarianism argues that the rightness of an action depends on how much pleasure or pain results from it. The second approach, deontological ethics, claims the nature of an action is more important than the results. Kant, the most important propo- nent of this approach, believes that we have a moral duty to perform actions with intrinsic worth. He calls the central rule of morality the categorical imperative.

 

 

Key Terms

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Introduction to Philosophy

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Ethical relativism:

Teleological:

Utilitarianism:

Deontological:

Empiricism:

Hedonistic calculus:

Categorical Imperative:

 

 

Summary

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Introduction to Philosophy

• Right, Wrong, and Philosophy • Right and wrong somewhere between “too rigid” and “too loose” • Philosophical Ethics • Uses reason and logic to talk about right and wrong • Religious and Legal Approaches • Religions offer explicit moral evaluations of human conduct • Religious approaches use sacred texts and leaders • Legal approach arises out of politics • Laws can be legal, but not morally fair or just • Differences among Cultures, Individuals and Circumstances • Ethical relativism • Racial and sexual discrimination • Infanticide • Lying to a drunk friend • Cheating on your Spouse • The Philosophical Approach: Basic Need and Well-Being • Well-Being • A basic sense of satisfaction with our lives • Human Needs • Survival needs like food, shelter, and clothing • Justice, fairness, and respect for one’s individuality • Individual Differences and Adaptability • Many different situations for people • All have similar needs • Some adapt to their situation, even with needs unmet • Exactly What Do We Need? • The basic needs that ethics is built on • U.N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights • Life itself • Freedom • Equality • Personal security • Protection by a just legal system • Political rights • A private life • The ability to choose marriage and family • Freedom of thought and action • Access to the benefits of a society • Work • rest • Two Categories of Needs • Material conditions • Ways of being treated • Something for the Skeptics • Specific provisions may be debatable • Idea of basic conditions needed for well being is solid • Two Approaches to Ethics • Results-oriented, or teleological • Action depends on whether consequences are positive or negative

 

 

Summary

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Introduction to Philosophy

• The results of an action • Act-oriented, or deontological • Actions have a moral character apart from their consequences • The nature of the action itself • Results Oriented, or Teleological, Ethics: Utilitarianism • Utilitarianism argues that the ethical character of an action depends on how much pleasure or pain results from it • Jeremy Bentham • “Utility” and Pleasure • evaluate actions by how much pleasure and pain they produce • Measuring Pleasure: Bentham’s “Hedonistic Calculus” • Hedonistic Calculus: a method of measuring how much pleasure or pain an action produces • Intensity—how intense is the feeling • Duration—how long it lasts • Certainty—odds that action will produce this feeling • Propinquity—how soon feeling will be experienced • Fecundity—likelihood of more future pleasure • Purity—chance it will produce long term pain • Extent—number of people affected • Applying the Calculus: A Case of Racism • Using scale of -10 to +10, rate action for both Bill and Jeff • Jeff harasses Bill • Jeff does not harass Bill • The Results • According to Bentham’s system, Jeff’s harassment is morally wrong • The Strengths of the Hedonistic Calculus • It is quantitative, objective, and reasonably inclusive • Does not prejudge the issue • Problems with the Calculus: A Case of Slander • Ron and Tony • Calculus comes out “close” or with the lie being morally good • Bentham ignores the quality of pain or pleasure • John Stuart Mill • The Quality of Pleasure • Mill’s ethical yardstick measures quality as well as quantity • Identifying Higher and Lower Pleasures • Rely on the judgment of people who have already experienced the range of pleasures involved • Mill suggests a consensus among people who have experienced a full range of pleasures • Doing a questionnaire • Students chose similar high, medium, and low quality pleasures and pains • Identifying Long-Term Consequences • A case of lying • Everything we do can have far ranging consequences for ourselves and others • Problems with Mill’s Theory: A Case of Cheating • Ruth and John • Long term could be very good • Ends justify the means

 

 

Summary

55

Introduction to Philosophy

• Circumstances could permit action today, deny it tomorrow • The Limits of Results-Oriented Ethics • Too flexible to be a secure ethical standard • Act-Oriented, or Deontological Ethics • Looking at what people do, not the consequences of their actions • The “Principal of the Thing” • Looks at an action’s intrinsic strengths and weaknesses • We have a duty to act a certain way • Immanuel Kant • Created an elaborate account of every facet of human experience • Duty and Dignity • The right thing to do • Action must have intrinsic worth • Humans as creatures who have dignity • Kant’s Ethical Standard: The Categorical Imperative • Categorical Imperative • Basic moral rule • Holds in every case without exception • Universal Law of Nature • Testing a maxim to see if it has universal validity • The False Promise • False promise can’t work for all, since concept of promise would not exist • Means and Ends • Treating others as ends, rather than means • Treating others with respect • Treating people and means, puts me first • The False Promise Again • Kant reaches same conclusion: lying is wrong • The Uses of Act-Oriented Ethics • Ethical judgments do not vary widely • Lets us develop an ethical standard from a realistic and practical under- standing who we are as humans • The Limits of Act-Oriented Ethics • Rigid and inflexible • “always wrong” doesn’t seem realistic • Life is more complicated than act-oriented systems acknowledge • Combing the Two Approaches • Getting the best from both worlds • Using both approaches helps us to arrive at a better decision • Stealing a Textbook: The Consequences • Short term consequences may be positive • Long term consequences may be negative • Stealing a Textbook: The Act • Example of the false promise • Imagine a world with stealing as universal law • No bookstores at all • Action is more wrong than right • Ethics in Summary • Philosophical approach to ethic gives us more than one way to make up our minds • Philosophical approach is helpful in deciding what is the right thing to do

 

 

Self Test

56

Introduction to Philosophy

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1. A teleological, or _____, approach to ethics _____.

A. act-oriented/argues that actions have a moral character apart from their consequences B. act-oriented/claims that the ethical character of an action depends on whether its consequences are positive or negative C. results-oriented/claims that the ethical character of an action depends on whether its consequences are positive or negative D. results-oriented/argues that actions have a moral character apart from their conse- quences

2. A deontological, or _____, approach to ethics _____.

A. act-oriented; argues that actions have a moral character apart from their consequences B. act-oriented; claims that the ethical character of an action depends on whether its consequences are positive or negative C. results-oriented; claims that the ethical character of an action depends on whether its consequences are positive or negative D. results-oriented; argues that actions have a moral character apart from their conse- quences

3. Which of the following comes closest to the main ideas underlying a teleological ap- proach to ethics?

A. do your duty B. survival of the fittest C. no harm, no foul D. there is virtue in suffering

4. Which of the following comes closest to the main ideas underlying a deontological approach to ethics?

A. do your duty B. survival of the fittest C. no harm, no foul D. there is virtue in suffering

5. Utilitarianism _____.

A. is a deontological ethical theory that uses a scientific, empirical basis for ethics B. is a teleological ethical theory that bases ethics on private philosophical insight C. is a deontological ethical theory that uses pleasure and notions like “the greatest good of the greatest number” as standards for judging the morality of actions D. is a teleological ethical theory that uses pleasure and notions like “the greatest good of the greatest number” as standards for judging the morality of actions

 

 

Self Test

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Introduction to Philosophy

6. The strengths of Bentham’s Hedonistic Calculus are it effectively measures many of the consequences of an action and it does not prejudge the question of the morality of an action.

A. True B. False

7. _____ revised Bentham’s ideas by arguing for the importance of differences in the type, kind, or quality of pleasures and pains that follow from actions

A. John Stuart Mill B. Immanuel Kant C. B.F. Skinner D. Sigmund Freud

8. The most basic concept of Kant’s ethics is_____.

A. Truth B. Duty C. Morals D. consciousness

9. Kant calls his basic moral rule the categorical imperative.

A. True B. False

10. The ultimate drawback to a teleological approach to ethics is that it allows for the idea that “the ends justify the means.”

A. True B. False

 

 

Answer Keys

58

Introduction to Philosophy

Key Term Definitions

Ethical relativism: Asserts that ethical judgments are simply an expression of the limited perspec- tive of individuals or societies.

Teleological: Claims that the ethical character of an action depends on whether its consequences are positive or negative

Utilitarianism: A teleological theory that uses pleasure and “the greatest good for the greatest num- ber” as standards for judging the morality of an action.

Deontological: A theory of ethics that argues that actions have a moral character apart from their consequences.

Empiricism: The philosophical outlook that stresses the importance of basing knowledge on objec- tive, observable facts and physical evidence.

Hedonistic calculus: Bentham’s system for measuring the amount of pleasure and pain that results from an action.

Categorical Imperative: Kant’s conception of a universal moral law.

 

 

Answer Keys

59

Introduction to Philosophy

Answers to Self Test

1. D

2. A

3. C

4. A

5. D

6. A

7. A

8. B

9. A

10. A

 

 

Notes

60

Introduction to Philosophy

 

 

Objectives

61

Introduction to Philosophy

Chapter Number Six Why Be Ethical?

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Understand the idea that “virtue is the health of soul.”

2. Describe the three components of a human’s soul according to Plato.

3. Explain why Socrates believes that unethical actions actually harm the person who performs them.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 157-181 of your textbook

• Reference: Discovering Philosophy, Portfolio by: Thomas I. White, 2ND Edition

 

 

Overview

62

Introduction to Philosophy

Why should we do the right thing? Both Plato and Socrates say that virtue is its own reward. Plato has a concept of the soul that has three parts. The physical, spirited and intellectual parts of the soul must be in healthy balance, or else our bodies or emotions control us. Socrates thinks that vice harms the doer. He thinks our own vice erodes our ability to reason clearly and we are never satisfied.

 

 

Key Terms

63

Introduction to Philosophy

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Soul:

Spirited:

 

 

Summary

64

Introduction to Philosophy

• Why Act Ethically? Plato and Socrates • The Case of Gyges’ Ring • Glaucon claims people only do right because they can’t get away with what they want do • Gyges, a shepherd, find a ring that makes him invisible • Gyges commits adultery and kills the king, takes over the kingdom • An Extreme Case • Plato compares two lives • Unethical person with a reputation for goodness • Good person with a reputation for vice • Virtuous actions depend now on themselves, not on reputation • Moral Virtue, Vice and the Soul • Intrinsic value of virtue in this life • Being good is like being healthy • Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls • Healthy body free of disease and in relatively good shape • Healthy soul has a clear moral vision and strength of will • Cheating on a history course • Unhealthy soul gives in to fears • Healthy soul is free to live by own standards • Plato’s Idea of the Healthy Soul: Balance and Control • Soul is divided into three parts • Physical—bodies and physical needs • Spirited—emotions and emotional needs • Intellectual—the mind, reason • People obsessed by their bodies • People obsessed by their emotions • Healthy soul is balanced • The Soul’s Health and Acting Ethically • Physical and emotional desires our of balance cloud our judgment about right and wrong • Ethical behavior comes from the soul’s health • Socrates: Vice Harms the Doer • Socrates never wrote anything down • Engaged people in dialogue, known later as the Socratic method • An Overview of Socrates’ Ethical Beliefs • Socrates’ positions through intellectual examination and rational argument • When we do something wrong, we are hurt by it • Philosophical Interpretation • Speculating about missing thought of Socrates • How Vice Changes Us: An Ordinary Example • Care of the soul very important • A case of lying • How Vice Harms Us: An Example From the Gorgias • Four characters • Socrates • Gorgias • Polus • Callicles • Setting Up the Issue

 

 

Summary

65

Introduction to Philosophy

• Conversation about the nature of rhetoric • Use for unjust ends • Polus not bothered • Callicles has no shame in arguing with Socrates • When we do wrong we weaken our strength of will and our moral vision • The Wine Jar Metaphor: Desires and Strength of Will • Healthy individual is like a solid wine jar • Unethical person like a leaky wine jar • Never full • Constantly deeding to fill desires • Non-cognitive Harm: Insatiable Desires and Loss of Control • Vice affects the non-cognitive dimension of human personality • Genuine harm done: a downward spiral of corruption the more he tries to satisfy his desires • Behavior seems real enough; people lose control; no strength of will • Cognitive Harm: Weakened Intellect and Damaged Moral Vision • Vice also affects the mind • Moral vision disappears • Right and wrong do not apply to them • Callicles as the Embodiment of Vice • Socrates points out problems in Callicles’ life • Callicles can’t recognize his poor intellect • Callicles and others rationalize their actions • A Commonsense Assessment • Vice harms the doer in two ways • We damage the mechanism that emotional stability • Our minds are used as slaves to our desires • Moral Virtue and Happiness • We need to live a virtuous life to be happy • What about a Moderate Callicles? • Unethical behavior erodes the wine jar of our soul • Repairing the Damage Vice Does • Soul could be healed by getting the person to see he can never be truly happy • “The unexamined life is not worth living” • Why Be Ethical? • Unethical person is weak • Plato describes a need for a balanced soul • Socrates states that vice harms the doer

 

 

Self Test

66

Introduction to Philosophy

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1. The main reason that legal and religious approaches to ethics give for why we should be ethical is that ______.

A. virtue is its own reward B. virtue enhances our respect for the law, both human and divine C. the suffering and sacrifice which is the hallmark of ethical behavior builds character D. we thereby avoid being punished by the state or by God

2. This is _____ that philosophers handle this issue.

A. precisely the same way B. very different from the way C. the historical basis of the way D. historically derived from the way

3. In pursuing the issue of why we should be virtuous, Plato believes that we should compare the lives of ______.

A. virtuous person with a reputation for goodness and an evil person with a reputation for vice B. a virtuous person with a reputation for vice and an evil person with a reputation for virtue C. a virtuous person who was raised by virtuous parents in a good republic and a virtuous person who was raised by evil parents in an evil republic D. an evil person who was raised by evil parents in a good republic and a virtuous person who was raised by good parents in an evil republic

4. A healthy soul is characterized generally by _____.

A. the ability to distinguish right from wrong without being blinded by fear, greed, or the like; strength of will, freedom, self-control B. divine grace and the guarantee of eternal life C. a belief in the importance of suffering and the sense of moral superiority that goes along with that D. a belief in the teachings of Gyges and the ethical insights that flow from that

5. Socrates was unusual as a philosopher because _____.

A. he spent his life getting rich B. no other philosopher has ever challenged his ideas C. he dictated all of his ideas to another philosopher, Plato D. he never wrote anything about his teachings

 

 

Self Test

67

Introduction to Philosophy

6. In the story of Gyges’ ring, a shepherd finds a ring that can make him invisible.

A. True B. False

7. Plato thinks that we are made up of three parts, physical, ________, and intellectual.

A. Emotional B. Spiritual C. Mystical D. none of the above

8. Consider the case of a woman who is robbed and beaten. The robber escapes punish- ment. Socrates would say__________ has been most hurt by this crime.

A. The robber B. The woman

9. Socrates illustrates his ideas about the ethical life and the unethical life with the image of two wine jars.

A. True B. False

10. In the Platonic dialogue entitled the Gorgias, the character Callicles argues that best life is one of the uncontrolled and totally self-interested pursuit of pleasure.

A. True B. False

 

 

Answer Keys

68

Introduction to Philosophy

Key Term Definitions

Soul: The most important past of who we are- our moral and intellectual essence, our “real self,”our character, the source of our consciousness, the core of our personality.

Spirited: According to Plato one of the three parts of our soul; meaning our emotions.

 

 

Answer Keys

69

Introduction to Philosophy

Answers to Self Test

1. D

2. B

3. B

4. A

5. D

6. A

7. B

8. A

9. A

10. A

 

 

Notes

70

Introduction to Philosophy

 

 

Objectives

71

Introduction to Philosophy

Chapter Number Seven Democracy

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Define social contract and how it is a critical concept for harmonizing freedom and obligation.

2. Describe Locke’s understand of tacit consent.

3. Describe Plato’s criticism of democracy.

4. Define intellectual aristocracy.

5. Understand B.F. Skinner’s recommendation of a nondemo- cratic government.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 183-216 of your textbook

• Reference: Discovering Philosophy, Portfolio by: Thomas I. White, 2ND Edition

 

 

Overview

72

Introduction to Philosophy

The philosophical legitimacy of democracy has been defended on ethical grounds. Democracy claims to respect human freedom while requiring citizens to obey the law. The social contract, tacit consent, and majority rule are hallmarks of democracy. There are serious questions to the extent that each concept actually works in modern democracy. Plato criticizes democracy, saying that emotions can play too great a role. Plato proposes an aristocracy, with philosophers as rulers. Skinner recommends his own non-democratic community called Walden Two.

 

 

Key Terms

73

Introduction to Philosophy

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Democracy:

Social contract:

Tacit consent:

 

 

Summary

74

Introduction to Philosophy

• The Philosophical Argument for Democracy • The Meaning of “Democracy” • Demos—people • Cratein—to rule • A system of government that places political power in the hands of the entire citi- zenry • Legitimizing Governments: Politics and Ethics • Philosophically legitimate government is ethically acceptable • Teleological and Deontological Ethical Standards • Teleological approach • Life better for its citizens • Low crime rate • Healthy economy • Decent homes and schools • Excellent health care • Deontological approach • How well citizens treat one another • Equality • Fairness • Justice • Dictatorships, monarchies favor teleological approach • Democracy favors deontological approach • The Legitimacy of Democracy: Freedom and Autonomy • Freedom • We are free • Fundamental necessary condition for human life • Governments based on obligation and authority • Seem to be at odds with freedom • Autonomy • Only political obligation is one you freely assent to • Freedom, Authority, and Obligation • Problems of authority and obligation • Monarchs rule by divine right • Dictators rule by might makes right • Neither mesh with freedom and autonomy • In democracy, authority arises from the free choice of the citizens • People say what they want in life and freely agree on what to do in order to get it • The Social Contract • The social contract lies at the heart of democracy • Citizens freely enter into an agreement to abide by a society’s laws • Resolves the conflict between political authority and individual autonomy • Two major strengths • Respects freedom and autonomy • Easy to understand • Founding of the United States is one of the few occasions where people wrote the terms down • Agreeing to the Terms of the Contract • Rarely is there an actual document • Most people never get a chance to formally agree to the terms of a society they are born into

 

 

Summary

75

Introduction to Philosophy

• Tacit Consent • Unspoken agreement • Sufficient to constitute being bound by terms of a social contract • Tacit Consent in Real Life: A Business Agreement • Papers edited; he edits, you pay • Tacit Consent in Real Life: A College Community • No document agreeing to the dos and don’ts • Tacit Consent in Real Life: A Large Community • Born into a community • Expected to fit into community • Does Staying Put Constitute a Binding Agreement? Maybe Not • Harder to say we truly agree to be a part of modern democracy • Reason 1: Information Sufficient for Informed Decision Hard to Get • Difficult for average person to know all laws and freely consent to them • Education might be insufficient • Information could be biased • Reason 2: Emotional Factors Color Our Decisions • Attachments homes and families makes it difficult to contemplate leaving the country • Reason 3: Our Options Are Limited • Language and skills • Money needed to leave • Does Staying Put Mean Free Consent? • African Americans choosing to stay under segregation • Staying put means for certain reason, we choose to stay put • More Problems with Tacit Consent • Agree to obey laws so that life will be safer • Grudging Agreement? • Grudging agreement seems a poor basis for political obligation • Social Contracts in Practice • Too many pressures to say our decision is very free • Voting and Majority Rule • What Is Good About Voting? • Lets the people express their will • A way that people accept the social contract • Only good in unanimous votes • Majority Rule • Basic working principle of democracy • Obligations for the minority • Locke on Majority Rule • In order to preserve unity of society, must abide by the will of the majority • Majority and minority could do things each for themselves • Social contract does not imply majority rule • Majority Rule as a Veiled Threat? • Go along or else • Minority agrees to go along so as to save themselves from being forced by obey • Why Majority Rule? • By voting, we authorize majority rule • Winners’ and losers’ situations are different

 

 

Summary

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• Majority Rule as a Lesser of Evils? • Majority rule better than fighting • Majority rule limits the likelihood of harm • Majority Rule and Traditional Democratic Values • Fairness , equality and tolerance are not required to be a democracy • Majority rule could impinge on human rights • Democracy: Major Problems • Social contract hard to have in reality • Majority rule may not fare well in theory • At best, utilitarian reasons for democracy • Plato’s Ideas on Government • Plato’s Criticisms of Democracy • The Death of Socrates • Socrates’ enemies brought him to trial • Jury swayed by emotion • Voted to put him to death • The Rise of the Sophists • Teachers of rhetoric • All you have to do is speak persuasively • Emotion and ignorance come out ahead of reason and knowledge • The Validity of Plato’s Criticisms • Hard on democracy • Modern democracies haven’t always protected innocent people very well • Emotion in democracy • Negative campaigning • Most people not well informed on complex issues • Plato’s Solution • Plato’s View of Human Nature: Three Types of People • Physical people • The body dominates • Feeling people • Emotions rule • Intellectual people • Strongly drawn to intellectual interests • Plato’s Ideal Government • The Philosopher/Ruler • Intellectual person • Rule of an aristocracy • Rule by the best • Only “philosophers” have disposition for leadership • The Selection of Experts • Applies to politicians the same way other experts in society are chosen • B.F. Skinner’s Walden Two: A Non-democratic Ideal Society? • Most modern utopias are not democracies • Walden two based on behaviorism • Walden Two • Agricultural community • 1000 members • no money for internal use • limited number of people in certain professions

 

 

Summary

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• no money for internal use • limited number of people in certain professions • increased opportunities for women • planners and managers are in authority • they are selected, not elected • firmly committed to happiness of its members • Democracy: A Final Word • Questions about society’s institutions must rest on knowledge

 

 

Self Test

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Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1. Democracy comes from two Greek words

A. Demos, “freedom,” cratein, “capitalism” B. Demos, “people,” cratein, “freedom” C. Demos, “people,” cratein, “to vote” D. Demos, “people,” cratein, “to rule”

2. When the statesman Pericles praises democracy, he cites two features that most people take to be as characteristic of democracy as voting:

A. freedom and tolerance B. capitalism and freedom C. an elected presidency and a strong military D. freedom and generosity to the poor

3. In assessing the legitimacy of a political system, an act-oriented theorist would con- sider such things as _____.

A. equality, fairness, justice, and privacy B. the degree to which that society was able to dominate its neighbors militarily C. the ratio of the number of people who can vote to the number of people who do vote D. crime rate, state of the economy, and education

4. In terms of the philosophical legitimacy of democracy, a major role of voting is ____.

A. to serve as a check against abuses of power by either the executive, legislative or judicial branches of government B. to serve as a mechanism by which all voters can be said to freely bind themselves to abide by all the terms of the social contract C. to serve as a mechanism by which all voters are informed of the terms of the social contract, and cannot argue that they have been coerced D. to serve as a mechanism by which all voters can freely bind themselves to abide by only the one or two terms of the social contract they approve of

5. Plato thinks that one of the main weaknesses of democracy is that _____.

A. it is too rational and fails to appreciate emotions B. it does not recognize the superiority of people who, like Plato, were descended from royalty C. emotion and ignorance often come out ahead of reason and knowledge D. it is too philosophical to be practical

 

 

Self Test

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6. The notion of a social contract argues that the citizens of a society freely enter into an agreement to abide by that society’s laws and therefore are obligated to do so.

A. True B. False

7. The first working democracy in the world was in the ancient Greek city of___________.

A. Mykonos B. Athens C. Rhodes D. Ios

8. John Locke’s idea of tacit consent claims that an informal and unspoken agreement is sufficient to constitute being bound by the terms of a particular social contract.

A. True B. False

9. Strictly speaking, the type of government that Plato recommends is a aristocracy.

A. True B. False

10. Plato thinks that the only kind of government worse than democracy is tyranny.

A. True B. False

 

 

Answer Keys

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Key Term Definitions

Democracy: This combines two Greek words, “demos,” meaning “people,” and “cratien,” meaning “to rule.” It is a form of government characterized by votes and majority rule. Democracy claims to respect freedom and autonomy while legitimately requiring citizens to obey laws.

Social contract: An idea that underlies all modern democracies. It argues that the citizens of a society freely enter into an agreement to abide by that society’s laws and therefore are obligated to do so.

Tacit consent: An idea advanced by John Locke that claims that an informal and unspoken agree- ment is sufficient to constitute being bound by the terms of a particular “social contract.”

 

 

Answer Keys

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Answers to Self Test

1. D

2. A

3. A

4. B

5. C

6. A

7. B

8. A

9. A

10. A

 

 

Notes

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Unit 2 Examination Instructions

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The Unit Examination

The Unit Examination contains 25 questions, either multiple choice or true/false as well as a writing assignment.

Your grade on the examination will be determined by the percentage of correct answers. There is no penalty for guessing. The University utilizes the following grading system:

A = 90% – 100% correct B = 80% – 89% correct C = 70% – 79% correct D = 60% – 69% correct F = 59% and below correct

4 grade points 3 grade points 2 grade points 1 grade point 0 grade points

Completing Unit Two Examination

Before beginning your examination, we recommend that you thor- oughly review the textbook chapters and other materials covered in each Unit and following the suggestions in the “Mastering the Course Content” section of the course Syllabus.

This Unit Examination consists of objective test questions as well as a comprehensive writing assignment selected to reflect the Learning Objectives identified in each chapter covered so far in your textbook.

Additional detailed information on completing the examination, writ- ing standards, how to challenge test items and how to submit your completed examination may be found in the Syllabus for this course. If you have additional questions feel free to contact Student Services at (714) 547-9625.

 

 

Unit 2 Examination

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Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Immanuel Kant revised Bentham’s ideas by arguing for the importance of differences in the type, kind, or quality of pleasures and pains that follow from actions.

A. True B. False

2. The most basic concept of Kant’s ethics is truth.

A. True B. False

3. Kant calls his basic moral rule the categorical imperative.

A. True B. False

4. The ultimate drawback to a teleological approach to ethics is that it allows for the idea that “the ends justify the means.”

A. True B. False

5. In a religious approach to ethics, faith and the authority of sacred texts have the final word.

A. True B. False

6. If an action is legal, it is also morally right.

A. True B. False

7. Jeremy Bentham writes, “Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do.”

A. True B. False

 

 

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8. As Bentham and Mill are classic representatives of act-oriented ethics, so Immanuel Kant created the model for results-oriented ethics.

A. True B. False

9. Kant argues that a morally good action must have intrinsic worth.

A. True B. False

10. Plato thinks that we are made up of three parts, physical, ________, and intellectual.

A. Spirited B. Emotional C. Truthful D. Consciousnesses

11. Consider the case of a woman who is robbed and beaten. The robber escapes punish- ment. Socrates would say__________ has been most hurt by this crime.

A. The woman B. The robber

12. Socrates illustrates his ideas about the ethical life and the unethical life with the im- age of two wine jars.

A. True B. False

13. In the Platonic dialogue entitled the Gorgias, the character Callicles argues that best life is one of the uncontrolled and totally self-interested pursuit of pleasure.

A. True B. False

14. Plato believes that in the unhealthy soul there is an inappropriate balance among the three parts.

A. True B. False

 

 

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15. Socrates thinks that wrongdoing “is in every way harmful and shameful to the wrong- doer.”

A. True B. False

16. Socrates thinks that unethical actions have no effect on our ability to act virtuously.

A. True B. False

17. When Socrates says that, “the unexamined life is not worth living,” he is recommend- ing one way to avoid the harm that can come from acting unethically.

A. True B. False

18. Socrates probably sees the non-cognitive effects of vice as involving loss of the mind’s ability to argue forcefully for the value of the ethical life.

A. True B. False

19. The notion of a social contract argues that the citizens of a society freely enter into an agreement to abide by that society’s laws and therefore are obligated to do so.

A. True B. False

20. The first working democracy in the world was in the ancient Greek city of___________.

A. Athens B. Santorini C. Rhodes D. Ios

21. John Locke’s idea of formal consent, claims that an informal and unspoken agree- ment is sufficient to constitute being bound by the terms of a particular social con- tract.

A. True B. False

 

 

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22. Strictly speaking, the type of government that Plato recommends is an democracy.

A. True B. False

23. Plato thinks that the only kind of government worse than democracy is tyranny.

A. True B. False

24. Skinner’s society, Walden Two, is primarily an agricultural community.

A. True B. False

25. The kind of government that Plato recommends in his ideal society is a religious gov- ernment.

A. True B. False

 

 

Unit 2 Examination

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Written Assignment for Unit Two Be sure to refer to this course syllabus for instructions on format, length, and other information on how to complete this assignment. Please answer ONE of the following:

1. Describe the two major theories of ethics; what are advantages and disadvantages for each?

2. What do Plato and Socrates believe is the reason for humans to do the right thing?

3. Describe the components of democracy. What are Plato’s views on democracy?

4. Describe Skinner’s Walden Two.

 

 

You Can Do It

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With Unit 2 complete, you are half way through the course.

Take a break and reward yourself

for a job well done!

 

 

Objectives

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Chapter Number Eight The Nature of Reality

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Distinguish a “’mathematical reality” to a “physical reality.”

2. Describe the various explanations of reality based on the idea of a single underlying element.

3. Define objective idealism.

4. Describe Plato’s theory of the Forms.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 217-248 of your textbook • Reference: Discovering Philosophy, Portfolio by: Thomas I. White, 2ND Edition

 

 

Overview

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What is real? The first explanations of reality were anthropomorphic, with reality under the control of mythic and religious figures. The Milesians then offer reality in terms of a single, underlying element. They also speculate about the principles that govern change. Plato rejects this material- ism, arguing that reality is non-corporeal. He illustrates his ideas through an image of a line and the allegory of the cave. Berkeley makes a case for subjective idealism, claims that to be is to be perceived.

 

 

Key Terms

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The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Anthropomorphic:

Materialism:

Pre-Socratics:

Forms:

Idealism:

 

 

Summary

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• What’s “Real”? • Material things exist • Imaginary things exist in our minds • Phoenix • Unicorn • Objects of mathematics and geometry • Dividing the line • Things like “love” and “goodness” • Trying to Explain Reality • Putting Yourself in the Right Frame of Mind • On a tropical cruise • Hit you head, washed overboard, total amnesia • Explaining Your New World • Try to find some order to the world • Try to understand what goes on • An Anthropomorphic Explanation • Explaining things in human terms • A Natural Explanation • World is part of a system of natural forces • The Nature of Reality and the Milesians • First philosophers use nature to explain reality • Starts in place called Miletus, in ancient Ionia • Thales • Man of many talents • Became rich by cornering the olive market • Thales’ Account of Reality • Explains in terms of natural phenomena • Water, or “the Moist” • The first principle and basic nature of all things is water • The Dynamic Character of Existence: Change • Reality is material • Change: everything is full of gods • Explaining something that causes things to change • The Inquiry into Reality: Thales’ Contribution • First thinker to move away from religious and anthropomorphic explana- tions of reality • First to see that the world has material substance and power • Anaximander • 15 years younger than Thales • knew each other • first Greek to make a map of the known world • Anaximander’s Account of Reality • “the Unlimited” is the basic principle of reality • a material substance • Anaximander and the Unlimited • Earth, air, fire, and water are mere appearance • Anaximander and the Intellect • Doesn’t think water can take on all characteristics • Needs a substance without properties

 

 

Summary

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• Arrives at this relying on thought process • The Regulation of Change • Some force that ensures a rhythm • Describing Reality Figuratively • Uses terms like justice for figurative language • Anaximander and Thales • Both says account must consider stability and change • Anaximander goes beyond Thales with the “unlimited” • The Inquiry into Reality: Anaximander’s Contribution • Cannot experience reality’s basic nature with our senses • Introduces the idea of creative description of something “new” • Anaximenes • Anaximenes’ Basic Substance: Air • Air as the basic substance • Seems to take on a variety of characteristics • Air and Breath • Connection between air, breath and life • Breath contains the force of life itself • Progress: Condensation and Rarefaction • How do we get different things • Condensation and rarefaction • Reality and Number • Each substance in quantifiable • A Hierarchy of Nature • Reality processes an abiding natural order • The Inquiry Into Reality: Anaximenes’ Contribution • Explaining the difference between living and non-living things • Definition includes order and number • The Milesians’ Overall Significance • Mind is a better tool for understanding reality • Importance of distinguishing reality from appearance • Invented a new way of thinking other than religious or anthropomorphic • All share a materialist outlook • The Nature of Reality: Plato • The Pre-Socratics • Thinkers include Pythagoras, Heraclitus, Parmenides, Zeno and the Milesians • Plato • Plato and Physical Reality • Plato rejects the material world • Plato’s Levels of Reality • Ideas are more real than the objects that present themselves to our senses • World we know by our intellect • Intelligible world • World we know by our senses • Visible world • Plato’s Real World: The Line • First draw a vertical line • Divide it in two

 

 

Summary

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• Bottom part is the visible world • Top part of the line is the intelligible world • Divide each part of the line again • The Visible World • Top part label “physical objects” • Bottom part label “shadows, representations, drawings, reflections” • The Intelligible World • Bottom part label “objects of mathematics” • Top part label “the Forms” • Squares, Circles, Triangles, Points • Encounter perfect geometric shapes only in our minds • The Forms • Models of everything that exists • Highest form “the Good” • Forms and Physical Objects • Just as chair is responsible for its shadow, form of a chair is responsible for an actual chair • The Highest Forms • Concepts such as fairness, equality, and the Good • Person would not be able to understand the Good until age 50 • The Allegory of the Cave • Uses the story of the cave to represent his ideas about the nature of reality • Shadows on the cave wall are to the objects that produce them as the object are to the “real” objects • The Inquiry into Reality: Plato’s Contribution • The real world is a separate domain from the physical world • Idealism; reality is rooted in ideas, not matter • Reality is stable • Not many people can understand the nature of reality • The Nature of Reality: Berkeley • Berkeley’s Radical Idealism: Reality as the Product of Perception • Subjective idealism • Objects do not exist apart from being perceived • To be is to be perceived • What happens when we leave the room? • God as the Perpetual Perceiver • Berkeley and The Matrix • Reality as simply appearance • Benevolent God vs. malevolent machines • Berkeley’s Contribution • Emphasis on minds and perceptions • The Nature of Reality: A Final Word • Examined five philosophers—Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Plato, and Berkeley • You should have a sense of the questions asked regarding the nature of reality

 

 

Self Test

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Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1. Thales is the first thinker we know of who tries to explain reality in terms of _____.

A. anthropomorphic concepts B. mythic concepts C. natural phenomena D. divine activity

2. When Anaximenes explains change, he speaks in terms of _____.

A. justice and injustice B. cause and effect C. condensation and rarefaction D. gods and souls

3. Anaximenes claims that the first principle of reality is _____.

A. water B. air C. the Unlimited D. divinity

4. Plato represents his ideas about reality with a line. The bottom part of the line repre- sents _____.

A. the world of philosophical ideas (the Forms) B. the world of physical objects and mathematics C. the sinful world (human evil) D. the visible world (shadows, reflections, drawings, and physical objects)

5. The top part Plato’s line represents _____.

A. the spiritual world (God) B. the intelligible world (objects of mathematics and the Forms) C. the world of physical objects and mathematics D. the visible world (shadows, reflections, drawings, and physical objects)

6. Thales believes that the basic nature of all things, the first principle of reality, is ________.

A. Air B. Water C. Thought D. consciousness

 

 

Self Test

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7. Anaximander’s first principle of reality is _________.

A. The limited B. The unlimited C. The endless D. The truth

8. Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes and other thinkers such as Heraclitus and Par- menides are known as __________.

A. The Pre-Socratics B. The Post-Socratics C. The realists D. The idealists.

9. Plato explains the nature of reality with the divided line theory as well as with the allegory of a cave.

A. True B. False

10. __________maintains that object no not exist apart from being perceived.

A. Plato B. Berkeley C. Thales D. Anaximander

 

 

Answer Keys

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Key Term Definitions

Anthropomorphic: Explains something in human terms.

Materialism: A theory that maintains that reality is ultimately comprised of a particular material substance.

Pre-Socratics: The Pre-Socratic thinkers lived during the two centuries between Thales and So- crates and are characterized by their inquiries into the nature of reality.

Forms: The Forms are what Plato calls non-material, perfect models of everything that exists. They are known only by the mind. The highest form is called “the Good.”

Idealism: In opposition to materialism, idealism maintains that reality is rooted in ideas, not mat- ter. Plato claims that the Forms are more real than the objects that present themselves to our senses.

 

 

Answer Keys

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Answers to Self Test

1. C

2. C

3. B

4. D

5. B

6. B

7. B

8. A

9. A

10. B

 

 

Notes

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Objectives

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Chapter Number Nine What Is Knowledge?

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Describe the major beliefs of the Rationalism school of thought.

2. Describe the major beliefs of the Empiricism school of thought.

3. Understand John Locke’s views of the mind as a blank piece of paper.

4. Explain David Hume’s thoughts about the extent of our certainty.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 249-282 of your textbook

• Reference: Discovering Philosophy, Portfolio by: Thomas I. White, 2ND Edition

 

 

Overview

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There are two schools of thought on how we know something. Rationalism maintains that knowl- edge comes from our minds. Plato and Descartes use rationalism to gain knowledge. Descartes idea of radical doubt allows us to know a self and God. Empiricism claims knowledge comes from our senses. Locke and Hume reject the rational knowledge of innate ideas. Hume goes further by rejecting the self and causality. Kant tries to bridge the gap, or synthesize rationalism and empiri- cism, by claiming that while knowledge is grounded in our senses, the mind then orders our experi- ence to form knowledge.

 

 

Key Terms

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Introduction to Philosophy

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Rationalism:

Empiricism:

Analytic statement:

Synthetic statement:

 

 

Summary

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• Knowledge Depends on the Mind: Rationalism • Knowledge arises in our minds • The Rationalism of Plato • Knowledge of the forms is the only thing that counts as knowledge • “Let no one ignorant of geometry enter here” • The Superiority of Intellectual Knowledge • Plato does not believe that ideas from our senses are not knowledge • The Rationalist Idea of Truth • Knowledge is always some knowledge of truth • Series of “true” statements • Permanence, Stability, Duration • Intellectual truth is stable and enduring • Truths of mathematics and logic will always be true • “This page is white with black print,” will not always be true • Certainty • Absolutely certain of their truth • Triangle always has three sides • Logical statements are always true • Page and print probably is true, but we can’t be absolutely certain • The Rationalist Definition of Knowledge • Only purely intellectual disciplines count as knowledge • The Rationalism of Rene Descartes • What is the nature of knowledge? • Certainty and the Radical Doubt • If there is any doubt, reject the idea • Radical doubt; a concept of “abstaining from believing in things that are not entirely certain and indubitable. • Doubting the Obvious: Dreaming • Descartes wonders whether he might be dreaming • Doubting the Obvious: Deception • A Master Deceiver keeps us from any physical knowledge • The One Certainty: Existing • You must exist in order to be deceived • I think, therefore, I am • The Standard of Truth: Clarity and Distinctness • The self has a clarity and distinctness • The existence of God is clear and distinct • If God exists, there is no Master Deceiver • Objects of mathematics are sound • These very clear and distinct ideas—self, God, Substance, and Identity— are innate ideas • Exist naturally in our souls • The Superiority of the Mind as a Source of Knowledge • The wax example • A Contemporary Radical Doubt • An Alternative to the Senses: “Inner” Data • Memory • Possible for the mind to alter, even block certain memo- ries • Question as to the reliability of our memory

 

 

Summary

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• Other Mental Operations: Brain Engineering • Possible to alter the Brain’s programming in the future • Irrational fears cause for doubt • Descartes’ Insight • Gives us powerful reasons to doubt what we think is true • Knowledge Depends on the Senses: Empiricism • Knowledge comes only through the senses • Knowing something a posteriori • Empiricism’s Objections to Rationalism • Analytic Statements • Analyze something and identify its parts • Bachelor • Cube • 2+2=4 • Synthetic Statements • Attributes a property to something beyond what is contained in the defini- tion of the object or concept • The page is white • The tree is 30 feet high • The Empirical Advantage • Rationalists gain no new insights about the world • Empiricists loses absolute certainty, but goes outside the box of analytical thought • The Empiricism of John Locke • The Mind as a Blank Piece of Paper • Mind as a blank slate • Nothing in our minds that did not come from our senses • Sensation (our sense perceptions) • Reflection (our thinking about these perceptions) • The “Copy Theory”: Primary and Secondary Qualities • Primary qualities • The most fundamental properties of an object • Secondary qualities • Sensations • Color, smell, sound, taste • These qualities are not in the object itself • The Empiricism of David Hume • Pushes empiricism to extreme limits • Radical thinker • Impressions and Ideas • Impressions • Happen during an experience • Hear, see, feel, love, desire or will • Ideas • Less lively perceptions when we reflect on impressions • Not All Ideas Are Genuine • The mind joins two ideas that do not go together • Golden mountain • Testing for Meaning: The Self • A fiction, like the golden mountain

 

 

Summary

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• The Attack on Causality • “Everything has a cause” • Causality problematic for Hume • Pencil made of wood—OK • Dropping a book on the floor—problem • Book might not make the same sound another time • Constant Conjunction • Two billiard balls • Ball A hit ball B and caused it to move • The same thing will happen in the future • Predicting the Future from the Past • The future will be like the past—no way to know this • Probability, Not Knowledge • Statements about the future are probability, not knowledge • How Convincing Is Hume? • You still think your senses are reliable • Testing the Senses • How accurate our sense impressions are • Whether they refer to something that actually exists • An Experiment with the Senses • Red light and white light • Produce green shadow • Perceiving Reality: There Is More Going on Than You Think • Our perceiving mechanisms can easily misrepresent reality • The Influence of the “Knower” • Two pictures • Picture 1 • A vase • Two faces • Picture 2 • Young woman facing away • Old crone facing front • Our influence sees different things • Our Untrustworthy Senses • Good reason to doubt even our basic senses • Does Hume Go Too Far? • Even he admits to trusting his senses in everyday life most of the time • The Self Reconsidered • Gilbert Ryle • The “category mistake” • “comparing apples to oranges” • Causality Reconsidered and the Value of Induction • Inductive reasoning basic to Empiricism • Induction gives us probability • Knowledge Is Limited to Appearance: Immanuel Kant • An attempt to synthesize the two extremes of Rationalism and Empiricism • Only the mind provides absolute certainty • Knowledge is grounded in sense data • Accepts causality • Knowledge is what our minds produce as they actively arrange the data from our senses

 

 

Summary

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• Kant distinguishes between the “noumenal world” and the “phenomenal world” • Noumenal—object in itself • Phenomenal—object as it appears • We can only limited to phenomenal realm • Knowledge is possible, but limited • The Search for Knowledge—Where Are We? • Extremely difficult to discover “knowledge” if we need to be absolutely certain

 

 

Self Test

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Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1. Plato would claim that a conclusion based on firm evidence of your senses, like “this is a white page with black print on it,” counts as _____.

A. scientific truth B. truth, both scientifically and philosophically C. knowledge D. belief, but not knowledge

2. Descartes believes that the proposition that we exist _____.

A. can be doubted just as much as any other proposition B. is the one thing that must be true, because we must exist even to doubt it C. s likely a fiction created by the master deceiver D. is even less probable than mathematical propositions

3. The point of Descartes’ radical doubt was _____.

A. to test the resolve of the religious authorities and to suppress heresy B. to find out if genuine skepticism is possible C. to find out if genuine knowledge is possible D. to show how little the human mind can actually know

4. To illustrate his ideas about empiricism, John Locke says that the mind is like ______. Knowledge comes from ______.

A. a blank slate or blank piece of paper/ the world outside of us writing on it B. a blank slate or blank piece of paper/ the mind’s internal powers writing on it C. an empty wine jar/ philosophical insight filling up the jar D. a stone tablet/ God writing on it

5. Synthetic statements are proved by _______.

A. mathematical formulas B. philosophical insight C. empirical data D. religious wisdom

6. The philosophical approach to knowledge known as _________claims that knowledge comes from, or arises in, our minds.

A. Empiricism B. Rationalism C. Philosophical insight D. None of the above

 

 

Self Test

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7. The philosophical approach to knowledge known as ________claims that knowledge comes from sensory experiences.

A. Empiricism B. Rationalism C. Philosophical insight D. None of the above

8. Hume thinks that to the extent that knowledge is possible, it ultimately depends on___________.

A. The mind B. The soul C. The senses D. Our knowledge

9. Hume uses the example of a billiard ball, hitting another to question the concept of causality.

A. True B. False

10. Gilbert Ryle uses the term ___________ to describe an error in logical categories, otherwise known as “comparing apples to oranges.”

A. Category mistake B. False category C. False logic D. Error in logic

 

 

Answer Keys

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Key Term Definitions

Rationalism: Claims that knowledge comes from, or arises in, our minds.

Empiricism: Claims that knowledge comes from the data of our senses.

Analytic statement: Attributes a property to something and that property is already implicit in the definition of that object or concept.

Synthetic statement: Attributes a property to something, but that property goes beyond what is contained within the definition of the object or concept involved.

 

 

Answer Keys

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Answers to Self Test

1. D

2. B

3. C

4. A

5. C

6. B

7. A

8. C

9. A

10. A

 

 

Notes

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Objectives

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Chapter Number Ten Does God Exist?

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Describe the major empirical arguments for the existence of God.

2. Explain William Paley’s “argument from design.”

3. Describe St. Anselm’s “ontological argument” about the existence of God.

4. Describe the major rationalistic arguments for the existence of God.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 283-310 of your textbook

• Reference: Discovering Philosophy, Portfolio by: Thomas I. White, 2ND Edition

 

 

Overview

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There are empirical and rationalistic arguments for the existence of God. Empirical arguments claim that the workings of nature imply the existence of God. Paley and Aquinas offer proofs, but are challenged on the fact that they claim too much, don’t solve the problem of evil, and don’t disprove the possibility that the universe may be its own cause. Anselm’s Ontological Argument proves the existence of God from reason alone. Various thinkers reject Anselm’s argument.

 

 

Key Terms

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Introduction to Philosophy

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Argument from design:

Argument from the governance of the world:

Problem of evil:

Argument from motion:

Argument from the nature of efficient cause:

Ontological argument:

 

 

Summary

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• What Do We Mean by God? • A divine being who created the world and rules it still • Proofs of God: Arguments from the Character of the World • Arguing for God by proof in the world • The Argument from Design: William Paley • The world is so intelligently crafted that it must have a creator • The watch and the watchmaker • Does the Argument Work? • Proof is strictly empirical • Observations of nature • Reasonable conclusion • False Analogy? • The living things in the world are not machines • Living things are not the same as a watch • What Kind of “Watchmaker”? What Kind of “Watch”? • Creator God does not have to have any other attributes • Possible for God to have made an imperfect world • Possible for the creator to have died or gone away • World-Architect, Not World-maker • Kant believes not enough evidence for a world maker • Materials could come from some other source • The evidence is of a universe of order and purpose • The best we can say is a world architect • The Argument from the “Governance of the World”: St. Thomas Aquinas • Aquinas sees signs of intelligence • Purposefulness of nature is the result of intelligence of God • How Good Is the “Watch”? • Bertrand Russell • The world, with all its defects • God has millions of years to perfect the world • Best try is the KKK and Fascism • Humans not so intelligent, capable of great harm • Watch isn’t working so well • The Problem of Evil • How do we reconcile evil with a good God? • The Free-Will Argument • People are created with free will • Augustine—the sole cause of evil lies in the free choice of the will • Problem; the watch still explodes now and then • Natural disasters • Our choices are not always our own • Irrational forces can lead us to terrible events • The holocaust • Oppression of racial minorities • Oppression of women

 

 

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• The Suffering of the Innocent: The Book of Job • Good people face terrible suffering • Job suffers as the good man • Loses everything • God restores everything after Job Repents • Left with a world maker who is insensitive • Arguments from Motion and Causality: More from Aquinas • Argument from motion • Motion means the reduction of something from potentiality to actuality • Argument from the nature of efficient cause • Aquinas argues there must be a “first mover” or “first cause” • This entity that is “uncaused” or “unmoved” is God • This Cannot Go to Infinity • Series of vertical dependencies going on at one moment • First cause stands at the top of the hierarchy • Everything we experience is contingent of something else • Is This Argument Plausible? • Change takes place • Something had to start everything in motion • Only an Uncaused Cause • Limits God the just one role • Just a world-architect • Implies a very different God from that which Christians and Jews call God • Hume’s and Russell’s Objections • Hume • Universe itself is its own cause • Russell • Our thinking is just too limited • Hume—the whole is the sum of its parts • Does the Material World Prove God’s Existence? • Mixed results at best • May be a world-architect • Arguments from Reason Alone • Rational argument • The Ontological Argument: Saint Anselm • Ontological argument • One of the most important proofs offered for the existence of God • What Anselm Has in Mind • Thing of the greatest supreme being—“something-than-which-nothing- greater-can-be-thought” • Strong sense that it must exist • Most perfect being is God • We are also aware of God’s “necessary existence” • Reason Alone • Takes an idea of a perfect being • Makes his point purely by logic • Anselm’s Platonism • Similar to Plato’s idealism • Anselm’s Critics

 

 

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• Guanilo • The existence of “lost island” • Thomas Aquinas • No problem arguing for God’s non-existence • David Hume • Thinks of God’s non-existence plausible • Anselm’s Critics Reviewed • Understanding a concept does not prove that the concept exists • Anselm’s Reply: A One-Concept-Only Argument • His argument only works for one concept—God • Defining the Greatest Possible Being by Reason or Faith? • A look at Anselm’s proof • Aristotle’s Unmoved Mover and Plotonius’ “the One” • Both are examples of “greatest possible being” • Reason does not support Anselm’s claims • Reason or Faith? • God’s Existence: A Question of Reason • No proof shoes beyond any doubt that God exists • God’s Existence: A Question of Faith • God’s existence a matter of belief • Religion and Emotion • Bertrand Russell (again) • Fear is the basis of religion • Belief and Harm • Religious belief has led to much harm in the world • Focus on belief rather than behavior • We are facing matters of belief, not knowledge

 

 

Self Test

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Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1. An empirical argument for the existence of God would claim that _____.

A. a mystical union with God reveals God’s existence to us B. the mind alone reveals to us the existence of God C. the workings of nature reveal to us the existence of God D. only an analysis of the behavior of subatomic particles will prove the existence of God

2. A rationalistic argument for the existence of God would claim that ______.

A. a mystical union with God reveals God’s existence to us B. the mind alone reveals to us the existence of God C. the workings of nature reveal to us the existence of God D. only an analysis of the behavior of subatomic particles will prove the existence of God

3. Aquinas’ “argument from the nature of efficient cause” claims that ______.

A. in a world of cause and effect, there must be some “first cause” B. because natural causation is so efficient, the universe can be explained without God’s existence C. just as the efficiency of a watchmaker reveals his intelligence, so the efficiency of natural processes reveals God’s intelligence D. the very concept of God as “that-than-which-nothing-greater-can-be-thought” can ac- count for all causes and all effects

4. A “first cause” or “first mover” _____.

A. is the kind of being whose existence shows that the universe can be explained without reference to God B. is Aquinas’ way of referring to the most philosophically fundamental concept in dis- cussing the universe, “that-than-which-nothing-greater-can-be-thought” C. is the first being in existence whose contingent nature allows us to trace a path back to God D. is a necessary being in its own right, that is, its existence is not contingent on some- thing else

5. Kant also says that the fact that the universe is ordered and purposeful _____.

A. implies at most a world-architect, not a worldmaker B. implies that the world needed no such God C. implies that it needed a creator and a designer D. implies that it needs Chinese take-out

 

 

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6. An _____________ claims that the universe is so intelligently crafted that it must have a creator.

A. Argument from design B. Ontological argument C. Argument from the nature of efficient cause D. Rationalistic argument

7. The problem of evil is taken up in the Bible in the book of Job.

A. True B. False

8. Aquinas defines _________ as potentialities becoming actualized.

A. Motion B. Energy C. Personhood D. Spirit

9. An ____________ argument concerning God’s existence claims that by merely con- templating the notion of God as “that-than-which-nothing-greater-can-be-thought,” we become aware that God must exist.

A. Argument from design B. Ontological argument C. Argument from the nature of efficient cause D. Rationalistic argument

10. ___________claims the fear is the basis of religion, that people “accept religion on emotional grounds.”

A. David Hume B. Bertrand Rusell C. Thomas Aquinas D. Saint Anselm

 

 

Answer Keys

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Key Term Definitions

Argument from design: An argument that claims the universe is so intelligently crafted that it must have a creator.

Argument from the governance of the world: Claims that the order and intelligence of the activities of nature imply the existence of a being directing them.

Problem of evil: Refers to the conflict between the notion of a good God and the existence of evil in the world.

Argument from motion: It claims that there must be a “first mover” to account for the fact that things happen in the world, or that potentialities become realized into actualities.

Argument from the nature of efficient cause: It claims that in a world of cause and effect, there must be some “first cause.”

Ontological argument: It claims that by merely contemplating the notion of God as “something- than-which-nothing-greater-can-be-thought,” we become aware that God must exist.

 

 

Answer Keys

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Answers to Self Test

1. C

2. B

3. A

4. D

5. A

6. A

7. A

8. A

9. B

10. B

 

 

Notes

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Objectives

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Chapter Number Eleven The Purpose of Life: Marx and Buddha

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Describe the beliefs of Karl Marx, in regards to “what should we strive for in life?”

2. Understand Marx’s views on capitalism.

3. Explain the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path in Buddhism.

4. Distinguish between the contemporary Western concepts of happiness versus the Buddhism concepts of happiness.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 311-340 of your textbook

• Reference: Discovering Philosophy, Portfolio by: Thomas I. White, 2ND Edition

 

 

Overview

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When we look at the question of what is important in life, we in the West answer in terms of self- interest and money. Marx and Buddha offer very different answers. Marx focuses on economic factors, claiming that capitalism fosters competition, inequality, and material wealth. None of these things lead to happiness. He feels that alienated labor is unsatisfying and at odds with the productive nature of human beings. Buddhism claims that the law of karma governs our fate. Through the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path, the Buddha explains that the cause of unhappiness is suffering. Buddhism recommends decreasing our desires. This is very different from Western thought.

 

 

Key Terms

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The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Dialectical materialism:

Dialectic:

Alienated labor:

Karma:

 

 

Summary

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• Opening discussion • The meaning of life • Western views of materialism, individualism and secularism • Karl Marx and Marxism • Marx was a German who lived much of his life in England • Marx’s influence on the Soviet Union and China cause many of our faulty notions about him • Capitalism as the Source of Our Ideas: “Dialectical Materialism” • Economic factors are the most important force in any society • Hegel’s Dialectic and Its Influence on Marx • Dialectic • Thesis, antithesis, and synthesis • Marx rejects the idea of creative force as spirit • Marx accepts the idea of a dialectic • Historical Materialism and the Dialectic • History is the chronicle on economic forces at work • History is the clash between proletariat and bourgeoisie • Resulting synthesis would be communism • How the Material World Shapes Us: A Simple Example • Desks and chairs as symbols of power • We react to people according to their placement in the room or at the table • How the Conditions of Life Determine Consciousness • According to Marx, the laws, politics, art, religion and philosophy are determined by that society’s economic structure • Tree illustration • Economic structure as the trunk • Laws/politics as branches • Art, religion, philosophy as leaves • Social/Political Values • Political organization of a society results from the distribution of wealth and the power of those who hold it • Founding Fathers motivated by the material conditions at the time • Capitalism and Capitalist Values • Capitalism is an economic system based on private ownership, capital, self-interest, and a free, competitive market • Competition • Capitalism promotes competition • Evident in athletics • Inequality • Capitalism promotes economic inequality • Someone beating the odds • Rags to riches • Most people never leave their economic or social status • “Bettering” Ourselves • meaning making more money • moving up in Social status • Materialistic Values • Tangible, material wealth is all that counts

 

 

Summary

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• The Structure of Our Days • Commute to work • Fragmentation of life • Education • Economic imperatives determine educational goals • Homework on schedule • Competitive testing, assignments • Do We Choose Our Values? • Values determined by forces we never even think about • Happiness and Unhappiness • Homo Faber: “Man the Maker” • Humans are essentially producers • We become what we do • “Alienated Labor” • our work leaves us alienated from our true selves • Alienation From the Product • Under capitalism, we lose the products of our labor • Alienation of the Process • Division of labor maker the special skill of the worker worthless • Alienation From Our Nature • We become alienated from our basic nature as producers • Alienation From Other People: Competition • Capitalism separates people from one another • Everyone for themselves • Capitalist Alienation Versus Marxist Happiness • The values of capitalism as diametrically opposed to human nature • You become what you do • Capitalism: The “Bottom Line” • Happiness does not come from what we have • Happiness comes from what we do in our lives and our relationships with other people • Buddhism—Another Alternative • Some Differences Between Eastern and Western Thought • Religion and philosophy separate in the West • Religion and philosophy intermix in the East • Judeo-Christian God a very Personal • Eastern religions have a more amorphous concept of God • The Teaching of Buddha: Spiritual Enlightenment as the Aim of Life • An actual Buddha • The “supreme Buddha” Siddhartha Gautama born in Nepal to a family of great wealth • Spiritual enlightenment should be our goal • Rebirth • Reincarnation is an accepted fact • Visiting a place fro the first time and feeling like you’ve been there before—déjà vu • Karma • Sanskrit word for “action” or “deed”

 

 

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• All deeds produce positive and negative effects for the one who does them • These effects extend from one life to the next • What Karma Is and Is Not • Not a simple force • Not a system of punishments and rewards administered by some divine judge • Karma describes the behavior of a moral supernatural energy • Deterministic Yet Optimistic • Predetermines most of our lives • Based on free choice • We choose our actions, but we must live with the consequenc- es • Nobody Else to Blame • Each of us is totally responsible for our actions • The Teaching of Buddha: How to Get Off the Wheel of Life • The Four Noble Truths • First Noble Truth—life is suffering • Second Noble Truth—identify the cause of suffering; desire • Third Noble Truth—stopping desire stops suffering • Fourth Noble Truth—follow the Noble Eightfold Path • The Noble Eightfold Path (the Middle Way) • Right views—understanding the Buddha’s teachings • Right intentions—the proper motives for our actions; helping others • Right speech—truthfulness • Right action—refrain from the following: injury to living things, taking what is not given, sexual immorality, falsehood, liquors that cloud the mind • Right livelihood—contact ourselves in our profession according to the Four Noble Truths • Right effort—steps to purify our minds • Right concentration—develop skills of concentration fostered by medita- tion • Right meditation—an inner stillness and focus • The Essence of Buddhism • Take the middle path • Buddhism Compared to Western Thought • Buddhism and Western Religions • Buddhism is less on God, more on the individual • Buddhism and Western Philosophy • Agree on the primacy of the mind • Philosophy stresses logic, Buddhism stresses meditation • Philosophy has a self or soul, Buddhism has “flame of a candle” • Buddhism and Western Social Values • The West—happiness found in wealth, the exercise of power, celebrity and personal achievement • Buddhism—spiritual and altruistic • The Challenge of Marxism and Buddhism • Two outlooks on life that differ greatly from our own • The Western wisdom is all wrong • Pursuit of wealth leads us away from happiness

 

 

Self Test

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Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1. Marxism and Buddhism call into question much of what contemporary Western societ- ies believe about the meaning of life. That is, they challenge _____.

A. the idea that the point of life is humble service of those less fortunate than ourselves B. defining happiness strictly in materialistic, individualistic and secular terms C. the necessity of being active politically D. the idea that religion should play a central role in our life

2. Marx believes that our ideas about what is valuable in life are a product of _____.

A. individual free will B. economic forces C. dialectical idealism D. Hegel’s laws of karma

3. Of the forces at play in any society, Marx thought that the most important were _____.

A. religious B. political C. economic D. philosophical

4. Marx believes that a society’s laws, politics, art, religion and philosophy are _____.

A. a product of individual free will B. determined by divine command C. determined by deep seated unconscious impulses D. determined by that society’s economic structure

5. Two characteristics of contemporary Western society that Marx would say that capital- ism makes us see as valuable are _____.

A. life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness B. justice, constitutional government, and the separation of powers C. cooperation and equality D. competition and inequality

6. Hegel’s label for the dynamic and conflict-filled process that dominates reality is dia- lectic, the three elements of which are thesis, antithesis, synthesis.

A. True B. False

 

 

Self Test

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7. Marx calls the type of work that characterizes capitalism_____________.

A. Forced labor B. Alienate labor C. Punishment D. None of the above

8. _________ is an essentially deterministic principle which is, paradoxically, based on the idea of individual free choice.

A. Karma B. Free Will C. Equality D. Rebirth

9. Buddhism began in India in the sixth century B.C.

A. True B. False

10. _______________ is the Buddhist idea that because the task of spiritual development is too complex to accomplish in one lifetime, we live many lives.

A. Karma B. Free Will C. Equality D. Rebirth

 

 

Answer Keys

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Key Term Definitions

Dialectical materialism: Marx’s revision of Hegel’s dialectical idealism in terms of Marx’s belief in the primacy of material, economic forces. Marx sees human history as the clash of opposing eco- nomic forces, creating new stages.

Dialectic: Hegel’s label for the dynamic and conflict-filled process whereby one force (thesis) col- lides with its opposite (antithesis) to produce a new state of affairs that combines elements of both (synthesis).

Alienated labor: This is the type of labor that characterizes capitalism. It has four dimensions: alienation from the product, alienation of the process, alienation from our nature, and alienation from other people.

Karma: Karma is a fundamental Buddhist law of the universe. The law of karma holds that all deeds produce positive and negative effects for the one who does them, and these effects extend from one life to the next.

 

 

Answer Keys

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Answers to Self Test

1. B

2. B

3. C

4. D

5. D

6. A

7. B

8. A

9. A

10. D

 

 

Notes

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Unit 3 Examination Instructions

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The Unit Examination

The Unit Examination contains 25 questions, either multiple choice or true/false as well as a writing assignment.

Your grade on the examination will be determined by the percentage of correct answers. There is no penalty for guessing. The University utilizes the following grading system:

A = 90% – 100% correct B = 80% – 89% correct C = 70% – 79% correct D = 60% – 69% correct F = 59% and below correct

4 grade points 3 grade points 2 grade points 1 grade point 0 grade points

Completing Unit Three Examination

Before beginning your examination, we recommend that you thor- oughly review the textbook chapters and other materials covered in each Unit and following the suggestions in the “Mastering the Course Content” section of the course Syllabus.

This Unit Examination consists of objective test questions as well as a comprehensive writing assignment selected to reflect the Learning Objectives identified in each chapter covered so far in your textbook.

Additional detailed information on completing the examination, writ- ing standards, how to challenge test items and how to submit your completed examination may be found in the Syllabus for this course. If you have additional questions feel free to contact Student Services at (714) 547-9625.

 

 

Unit 3 Examination

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Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes and other thinkers such as Heraclitus and Par- menides are known as the Pre-Socratics.

A. True B. False

2. __________maintains that object no not exist apart from being perceived.

A. Thales B. Berkeley C. Anaximander D. Heraclitus

3. Berkeley claims that God constantly perceives reality, and thus gives it ultimate exis- tence.

A. True B. False

4. An Anthropomorphic account of reality explains things by appealing to cultural terms.

A. True B. False

5. The basic idea underlying Plato’s understanding of the nature of reality is that ideas are more real than the objects that present themselves to our senses.

A. True B. False

6. The philosophical tradition that Plato represents is called materialism.

A. True B. False

7. The philosophical approach to knowledge known as ________claims that knowledge comes from sensory experiences.

A. Empiricism B. Rationalism C. Determinism D. None of the above

 

 

Unit 3 Examination

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8. Hume thinks that to the extent that knowledge is possible, it ultimately depends on___________.

A. The senses B. The truth C. Our Knowledge D. Our beliefs

9. Hume uses the example of a billiard ball hitting another to question the concept of causality.

A. True B. False

10. Gilbert Ryle uses the term ___________ to describe an error in logical categories, oth- erwise known as “comparing apples to oranges.”

A. Category mistake B. False logic C. False truth D. Error in thought

11. “A triangle has three sides” is an example of an analytic statement.

A. True B. False

12. Kant tried to synthesize the epistemological views of the rationalists and empiricists.

A. True B. False

13. Locke states that qualities like color, taste, and smell are primary qualities of an ob- ject, and are not processed by the mind.

A. True B. False

14. The problem of evil is taken up in the Bible in the book of Job.

A. True B. False

 

 

Unit 3 Examination

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15. Aquinas defines _________ as potentialities becoming actualized.

A. Motion B. Sense of self C. Our soul D. energy

16. An empirical argument concerning God’s existence claims that by merely contem- plating the notion of God as “that-than-which-nothing-greater-can-be-thought,” we become aware that God must exist.

A. True B. False

17. ___________claims the fear is the basis of religion, that people “accept religion on emotional grounds.”

A. Bertrand Russell B. David Hume C. Thomas Aquinas D. Saint Anselm

18. David Hume dismisses such arguments about God’s existence from causality with the claim that the material universe itself might be a necessarily existent being, which means there is no need for a “first cause.”

A. True B. False

19. Anselm’s discussion of the possibility of God’s existence relies on empirical evidence alone.

A. True B. False

20. Marx calls the type of work that characterizes capitalism_____________.

A. Alienated labor B. Punishment C. Forces Labor D. None of the above

 

 

Unit 3 Examination

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21. _________ is an essentially deterministic principle which is, paradoxically, based on the idea of individual free choice.

A. Karma B. Rebirth C. Free will D. Spiritual life

22. Buddhism began in India in the sixth century B.C.

A. True B. False

23. _______________ is the Buddhist idea that because the task of spiritual development is too complex to accomplish in one lifetime, we live many lives.

A. Karma B. Rebirth C. Free will D. Spiritual life

24. The Buddhist conception of the self is the source of the way the self is understood in Western philosophy.

A. True B. False

25. Unlike Western religions, Buddhism emphasizes the importance of practicing medita- tion as an important way to foster spiritual development.

A. True B. False

 

 

Unit 3 Examination

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Written Assignment for Unit Three Be sure to refer to this course syllabus for instructions on format, length, and other information on how to complete this assignment. Please answer ONE of the following:

1. Explain some major theories on the concept of reality.

2. Describe the general ideas of the theories of Rationalism and Empiricism. List the major supporters of each of these theories.

3. Describe the empirical and rationalistic arguments for the existence of God.

4. Describe the differences in what Karl Marx and Buddhism deems important in life.

 

 

You Can Do It

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Unit 3 is done! You’re close to the finish line and we’re cheering you on to victory!

 

 

Objectives

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Chapter Number Twelve Scientific Explanations of Reality

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Understand Isaac Newton’s mechanistic account of the universe.

2. Describe Einstein’s theory of the speed of light.

3. Understand Einstein’s theory of relativity.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 341-374 of your textbook

• Reference: Discovering Philosophy, Portfolio by: Thomas I. White, 2ND Edition

 

 

Overview

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Introduction to Philosophy

Science and philosophy are very similar. Science grew out of Philosophy, and both try to explain reality. Newton argues that space and time are absolute, and the laws of motion are consistent throughout the universe. Einstein replaces that picture with a relativistic one. The only constant is the speed of light. Space and time are relative to the speed of light. Einstein’s theory of relativity suggests the possibility of alternate realities. Similar problems with appearance versus reality arise from quantum mechanics and string theory. All of this calls into question how much empirical knowledge we have about reality.

 

 

Key Terms

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The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

A Lawful Universe

Newtonian Empiricism

Newtonian Determinism

The Speed of Light

 

 

Summary

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Introduction to Philosophy

• Opening discussion • Science and philosophy have the same goal—understanding and explaining reality • Worthwhile to consider how science accounts for the nature of reality • Science • The Appeal of Science • It affects our everyday lives • Demonstrable, ordered and impartial • Science and Philosophy • Science is an outgrowth of philosophy • Thanks to science, philosophy was able to break away from theology • The Mechanics of Sir Isaac Newton • Newton’s mechanical model of the universe was the foundation on which modern science rested for almost 300 years • Discovered gravity and calculus • Absolute Space and Time • Space and time are steady, uniform, unchanging and constant • Space and time are independent of anything that happens • A Lawful Universe • Matter and forces explains everything else that happens in the universe • One Universe, One Set of Laws, One Primary Force • All laws are the same everywhere in the universe • All motion in the universe conforms to the laws of nature • Newton’s Laws of Motion • Every body continues in its state of rest, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it • The change of motion is proportional to the motive force impressed • To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction • A Mechanical Universe • The universe as a huge machine • Planets move because of a huge system of natural forces • Philosophical Implications • No Divine Forces, No Platonic Forms • Removes God from running the universe • By seeing the world as a well ordered machine, Newton rejects platonic forms • Newtonian Empiricism • Our five senses are the ultimate source of knowledge • Newtonian Determinism • All behaviors of humans must result from identifiable causes • Determinism goes hand in hand with any belief in a lawful universe of cause and effect • Newton’s Idea of Space and Time • Space is the same, religious or superstitious beliefs not withstanding • Time is the same, and do not have different properties • Newtonian Reality: Absolute Space and Time • The concepts of absolute space and time undergird reality so strongly that they literally define reality and appearance • Overall Implications

 

 

Summary

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Introduction to Philosophy

• Newton gives us a stable and dependable universe • Most of us prefer certainty to uncertainty • Most of us prefer Newton’s Physics to philosophy • The New Physics: “Old” Science to “New” • Newton is wrong • “New science—everything after Albert Einstein—tells a different story • must understand the old science, in order to understand the new • Einstein’s Relativity Theory • Einstein single-handedly changed the way modern science thinks about reality • The Speed of Light • The speed of light remains constant (186,000 miles per second) • For everything, everywhere • Measuring Speed • Measuring the Speed of Cars • Fits Newton’s laws about motion • A Galactic Highway • The speed of light, relative to you is always the same • Einstein’s Constant • Everything but the speed of light is up for grabs • The Speed of Light and the Relativity of Time • Time is relative to a frame of reference • The Relativity of Time: The Twin Paradox • Twin on earth ages relative to the twin in space • The Objectivity of Time: Time Warps? • Star Trek: Travel back and forth in time • Only travel to the future is possible • Proofs of the Relativity of Time • Atomic clock • Muons • Philosophical Implications: Alternate Realities • Simultaneous existence of different realities • Riding on a train; dropping a book • The Relativity of Simultaneity • Two “simultaneous” bolts of lightning • Another Example of Simultaneous Different Realities • Light on the center of the car • Two light sensor that open doors at either end • The Relativity of Spatial Properties • Variable Length • Length changes as an object speeds up • As an object approaches to speed of light, it gets shorter and its mass increases • “Bent” Space • Matter and gravity can bend space • Like a giant waterbed • Large objects warp space • Traversing the Great Cosmic Waterbed

 

 

Summary

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Introduction to Philosophy

• You think you travel straight • Observer at distance sees your path curve • The Evidence of Warped Space: Bent Light • Stars at night versus stars during a solar eclipse • Sun bent light from the star • The Evidence of Warped Space: Mercury’s Orbit • Mercury’s orbit behaves according to Einstein’s laws, not Newton’s • “Bent” Time • gravity bends time, too • Bent Space and Bent Time Together? Black Holes • Black hole’s gravity so strong it bends both time and space • The Space-Time Continuum • Space and time differ relative to certain conditions • Space-Time: Reality in Four Dimensions • Newton • Reality in three dimensions: length, width, depth • Einstein • Reality in four dimensions: length, width, depth, and the space-time con- tinuum • A sunset that is now, but is already past • Any accurate account of reality must include the space-time continuum • 3 dimensional experiences of a 4 dimensional reality • Philosophical Implications of the Space-Time Continuum • The Poverty of Perception • Senses become untrustworthy reporters of reality • Reality does makes sense: we just can’t see it • Space-Time and the Past, Present, and Future • The present exists, but the past and future do not • Everything exists simultaneously • Appearance Versus Reality: Quantum Physics and String Theory • Objects only appear solid, but they are not • Moving a fan so fast it appears like a solid disk • Subatomic Particles and Quantum Mechanics • Subatomic Particle behavior cannot be predicted with certainty • A particle can be in different places at the same time • It’s impossible to determine both the position and velocity of a particle • The Even Stranger World of String Theory • A theory to unify Relativity and quantum mechanics • Ultimate building blocks of reality are vibrating one-dimensional strings of energy • Reality has eleven dimensions, according to string theory • Where Are We? • Universe is much more complicated than it would appear • Space and time are far more variable than we realize • Both science and philosophy suggest that the search for truth invariably leads to the unex- pected, the unusual, even the fantastic

 

 

Self Test

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Introduction to Philosophy

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1. The achievement of Isaac Newton that probably had the greatest impact on our think- ing is his overarching account of the universe being like _____.

A. a cave B. a line C. a great machine D. a space-time continuum

2. Newton believes that time is _______, that is, that ______.

A. relative/time varies depending on gravity and astronomical forces B. absolute/time is the same everywhere, and its properties are independent of anything that happens in it C. absolute/time has the properties that, as he wrote, we have an “absolute desire” for it to have D. relative/time varies depending on astrological forces

3. Newton’s view of the universe _____.

A. is completely at odds with what the mind and the senses suggest that it is B. is an outgrowth of medieval Christian theology and represents a revival of religious thought in western Europe C. suggests a universe of total chaos and unpredictability D. confirms what the mind and the senses suggest that it is

4. For Einstein, _______ Newton, time is _______.

A. unlike/relative B. like/relative C. unlike/absolute D. like/absolute

5. For Einstein, _________ is as _________ as space and time are for Newton.

A. the speed of light; absolute B. the speed of light; relative C. the space-time continuum; absolute D. the space-time continuum; relative

6. Modern natural science has a close relationship to the school of philosophy called Empiricism.

A. True B. False

 

 

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7. According to Einstein, _________ will be perceived the same whether the observer is moving or not.

A. The space-time continuum B. The speed of light C. String theory D. Relativity theory

8. Einstein’s theory about the ______implies that reality has four dimensions, not three.

A. The space-time continuum B. The speed of light C. String theory D. Relativity theory

9. _______________is based on the claim that the ultimate building blocks of reality aren’t subatomic particles, but even smaller vibrating one-dimensional strings of energy.

A. The space-time continuum B. The speed of light C. String theory D. Relativity theory

10. The world of subatomic particles spawned a separate branch of physics called quantum mechanics.

A. True B. False

 

 

Answer Keys

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Key Term Definitions

A Lawful Universe: Matter and forces explains everything else that happens in the universe.

Newtonian Empiricism: Our five senses are the ultimate source of knowledge.

Newtonian Determinism: All behaviors of humans must result from identifiable causes.

The Speed of Light: The speed of light remains constant (186,000 miles per second).

 

 

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Answers to Self Test

1. C

2. B

3. D

4. A

5. A

6. A

7. B

8. A

9. C

10. A

 

 

Notes

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Objectives

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Chapter Number Thirteen Does Gender Affect How We Think?

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Understand Perry’s impartial and objective model of knowl- edge.

2. Describe Kohlberg’s predominant ethic of justice.

3. Explain Carol Gilligan’s suggestions of an ethic of care.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 375-404 of your textbook

• Reference: Discovering Philosophy, Portfolio by: Thomas I. White, 2ND Edition

 

 

Overview

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Psychology points to differences in how men and women think about knowledge and ethics. Perry provides an impartial model of knowledge, and Belenky provides a model that incorporates intu- ition and emotion. Kohlberg suggests an ethic of justice, and Gilligan suggests an ethic of care. This thinking opens the door from emotion, intuition, and subjectivity in philosophy. It shows a problem with the male dominated field of philosophy that is being reshaped by feminine values.

 

 

Key Terms

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The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Kohlberg’s “Masculine” Ethics of Justice:

 

 

Summary

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• Knowledge: “Male” Versus “Female” Ways of Knowing • Female ways of knowing judged as inferior • Perry’s Stages of “Male” Knowing • Much of Perry’s sample is male • Stage 1: Duality • Knowledge is clear and unambiguous • Something is “right” or “Wrong” • Knowledge as the facts, the right answers • Stage 2: Unacceptable Multiplicity • Realize that there are other views • Only one view is right; all others are wrong • Discussion classes are a waste of time • Stage 3: Acceptable Multiplicity • We tolerate differences of opinion among experts without believing that only one can be right • Many college freshmen and sophomores are at this stage • Make sense of all the diversity by saying we all have our own truths • Stage 4: Relativism • Make peace with the conflicting opinions we encounter • Need reasons behind people’s views, so we can judge for ourselves • Realize that knowledge is constructed in some way • From Duality to Relativism: Historical Knowledge • First learn history as “just the facts” • Later learn history as less definite and more complex • Achieve our own understanding of history by managing conflicting points of view • Belenky et al.’s Stages of “Female” Knowing • Group of female psychologists; Mary Field Belenky, Blythe McVicker Clinchy, Nancy Rule Goldberger, and Jill Mattuck Tarule • used group of exclusively female subjects • important differences in how men and women develop an ad- vanced concept of knowledge • Stage 1: Received Knowledge • Much like Perry’s duality • Things are true or false • Difference • Men see themselves as authority • Women remain passive, and receive knowledge from “them” • Stage 2: Subjective Knowledge • Knowledge is personal, private • Difference in the emergence of “women’s intuition” • They believe in the validity of intuitive knowledge • Stage 3: Procedural Knowledge: Separate Knowing and Connected Knowing • Procedural knowledge • Knowledge now seen from the procedures and techniques of con- ventional inquiry • Separate knowing • Knower removes herself from the matter being investigated • The kind of knowledge we find in science and traditional scholar- ship

 

 

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• A patch women may take, but mostly men take this approach • Connected knowing • Most women go this way • Relies primarily on empathy • Works through discussion and dialogue • No equivalent to this in Perry’s model • Stage 4: Constructed Knowledge • All knowledge is constructed • Truth is fashioned, not discovered • The knower is an intimate part of the known • You must feel connected to it, not separate from it • Believing is more important than doubting • From Received Knowledge to Constructed Knowledge • A process by which a woman develops an increasingly complex kind of knowledge • “Male” and “Female” Knowledge Compared • similarity in the general course that men and women take toward a ad- vanced conception of knowledge • two critical differences: one involves intuition, and the other emotional detachment • Intuition • Intuition alien to most men as a way of knowing • Intuition dismissed as an “inferior” way of knowing • The Role of Emotions • Emotional detachment a virtue for Perry • Emotional detachment must be supplemented by more subjectivity and empathic responses • The Philosophical Significance of the Difference • Calls into question basic assumptions society makes about what counts as knowledge • Allison Jaggar argues that emotions are critical factor in achieving knowl- edge • Gender and Ethics • A Self-Inventory • The story of Hal and Roger • A questionnaire • Ethics: “Masculine” Justice Versus “Feminine” Care • People think gender plays a role in ethical decisions • One approach stresses rights, justice, and fairness • One approach stresses responsibility and care • One the inventory, men have J scores, and women have C scores • Kohlberg’s “Masculine” Ethics of Justice • Believed he was uncovering an innate, universal structure development of the human personality • Stages of Ethical Development • Preconventional level • Understand good and bad • Stage 1 • All that counts is power

 

 

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• Stage 2 • You scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours • Conventional level • Shift our focus from ourselves to others • Stage 3 • Action is good if it pleases other people • Stage 4 • Authority and law and order become more important • Postconventional level • Appreciate moral principles and do not depend on what anyone else thinks • Stage 5 • An action is right or wrong by an impartial assessment of how fair it is • Stage 6 • Individually realized ethical principals that are abstract and universal • How Valid Is Kohlberg’s Scheme? • Stages test out empirically • Problem—most women don’t get past stage 3 • Either women are morally inferior, or something is wrong with the theory • Carol Gilligan’s “Feminine” Ethic of Care • All Kohlberg’s subjects were male • The outlook of care and responsibility to others misses by Kohlberg • Three stages of development for women • Caring for the self • Responsibility • Acceptance of the principle of care • The Ethics of Justice and the Ethics of Care Compared • Justice, Care, and the Case of Roger and Hal • Justice lens • Rules must apply to both men • Care lens • May be unfair to treat them the same • Similarities and Differences • Both get to a basic moral principle of one’s own ethics • Impartiality is more detached approach • Care is inherently attached and relational • The Philosophical Significance of Perceived Differences • Care, Justice, and Traditional Philosophical Ethics • Parallel between ethic of care and a teleological approach • Parallel between ethic of justice and a deontological approach • Care and Justice: The Philosophical Significance • Each approach alone is incomplete • Combining both perspectives makes moral justification much more com- plicated • Must make room for emotion in ethical thinking • Gilligan proposes another separation between men and women

 

 

Summary

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• Men see themselves as autonomous as separate from others • Women see themselves as intimately connected to other people • Virginia Held • Moral theory proceeds from the activity of the marketplace, a male forum • Moral theory should be based in the model of the nurturing rela- tionship of caretaker and child • Janice Moulton • The “Adversary Paradigm” • Aggression incorporated as a basic aspect of philosophi- cal methodology • Gender, Ethics, and Knowledge • Similar responses surface in epistemology and ethics between men and women • Men seem to move toward detachment and reason • Women move toward empathy and care

 

 

Self Test

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Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1. In William Perry’s first stage, “duality,” we generally think that _____.

A. all authorities are mistaken B. authorities should be listened to because they know the truth C. truth emerges out of the clash of the opinions of conflicting authorities D. the “self” is the highest authority about matters of truth

2. The philosopher Allison Jaggar claims that _____.

A. men’s superior ability at perceiving emotions give them an “epistemic advantage” over women B. women’s superior ability at perceiving emotions give them an “epistemic advantage” over men C. women’s concern for emotions produce an “epistemic distortion” not experienced by men D. men’s concern for emotions produce an “epistemic distortion” not experienced by women

3. The main difference between Kohlberg’s “masculine” outlook and Gilligan’s “femi- nine” one can best be described by calling the masculine one _______ and the femi- nine one _______.

A. an ethic of authority/ an ethic of individualism B. an ethic of reason/ an ethic of mysticism C. an ethic of care/ an ethic of justice D. an ethic of justice/ an ethic of care

4. Gilligan sees the “feminine” outlook as being _______ to the “masculine” outlook because ______.

A. superior/ it encourages the use of emotions B. superior/nothing is more inclusive philosophically than a principle of Kant’s categori- cal imperative C. complementary/ each outlook has strengths, each has weaknesses D. inferior/ a principle of care is too emotion-based to be philosophically legitimate

5. In Belenky’s second stage, “subjective knowledge,” knowledge is seen as ______.

A. being impossible B. personal and private C. cultural D. procedural

 

 

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6. The main psychological research on epistemological differences between men and women focuses on different developmental stages that we go through in progressing from a simple to a mature understanding of the concept of _____________.

A. Knowledge B. Emotions C. Ethics D. believes

7. In ______________ “conventional” morality, including stages three and four, we un- derstand right and wrong in terms of laws and the expectations of others.

A. Perry’s B. Kohlberg’s C. Belenky’s D. Gilligan’s

8. If we are at Perry’s second stage, “unacceptable multiplicity,” and we hear two op- posite accounts of the causes of the Reformation, we would probably think that one, but only one, of the two accounts is true.

A. True B. False

9. In Belenky’s first stage, “____________,” knowledge is what some external authority says it is.

A. Constructed knowledge B. Received knowledge C. Subjective knowledge D. Procedural knowledge

10. In Belenky’s final stage, “_______________,” believing is more important than doubt- ing.

A. Constructed knowledge B. Received knowledge C. Subjective knowledge D. Procedural knowledge

 

 

Answer Keys

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Key Term Definitions

Kohlberg’s “Masculine” Ethics of Justice: Believed he was uncovering an innate, universal struc- ture development of the human personality

 

 

Answer Keys

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Answers to Self Test

1. B

2. B

3. D

4. C

5. B

6. A

7. B

8. A

9. B

10. A

 

 

Notes

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Objectives

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Chapter Number Fourteen Is A Dolphin A Person?

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Understand the concept that humans are the only candi- dates for personhood.

2. Describe the concepts needed for personhood.

3. Explain the reasons why dolphins are likely candidates for personhood.

4. Understand the possible ethical acceptability of the death and injuries of dolphins by humans.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 405-430 of your textbook

• Reference: Discovering Philosophy, Portfolio by: Thomas I. White, 2ND Edition

 

 

Overview

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We assume that only humans are persons. This chapter questions that assumption by asking whether dolphins are persons. Dolphins are likely candidates because of their large brains and intelligence. Dolphins do quite well on the question of personhood. The possible personhood of dolphins raises interesting ethical questions to their treatment.

 

 

Summary

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• Personhood • Human is a biological concept • Person is a philosophical concept • Philosophical criteria for personhood • A person is alive • A person is aware • A person feels positive and negative sensations • A person has emotions • A person has a sense of self • A person controls his own behavior • A person recognizes other persons and treats them appropriately • A person has a variety of sophisticated cognitive abilities. It is capable of con- ceptual, analytic thought. A person can learn, retain, and recall information. It can solve complex problems with analytical thought. A person can communicate in a way that suggests thought. • Living computers? • 2001’s Hal • Star Wars’ C3PO • Star Trek’s Mr. Data • Human and person are separate concepts • Possible for humans who are non-persons • Someone who is brain-dead • A fetus? • The dolphin • A real life possibility for non-human personhood • Dolphin Biology and Behavior • Some Descriptive Facts About Dolphins • Dolphins are mammals • Body temperature of 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit • Drinks fresh water from the fish it eats • Breathes air, same as humans • 30 different kinds of dolphins • We are most familiar with the bottlenose dolphin • Mothers carry young for 12 months, nurses it for another year • Dolphins can live into their thirties or forties • Some Facts About Dolphin Social Behavior • Live in groups or schools • Group-oriented animals • Core group consists of mothers and calves • Form strong social bonds • Interaction and social bonding central to dolphin life • Express great concern from group welfare • Devote much time and energy to sex • Only creatures other than humans who appear to engage in sex strictly for pleasure • Have a strong interest in humans • Some Facts About the Dolphin Brain • Dolphin brain resembles a human brain more closely than any other animal • Dolphin brain structure is older than ours • Cerebral cortex very similar

 

 

Summary

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• Some Speculations About Dolphin “Intelligence” • A commonsense understanding of intelligence • Refers to a being’s ability to engage in advanced mental processes like abstract thinking, reasoning, and understanding • Also how it handles problems and novel situations • Refers to the ability of a being to decide how to react • Dolphins are intelligent • Unusually curious, especially about humans • Dolphins can learn, can imitate actions • Intelligence and Problem Solving • Thinking one’s way to a solution has been an exclusively human trait • Experiments set up do test thinking in the dolphins • Use of weights to open food containers • Use of tools • Communication • Dolphins communicate with each other • Use clicks, whistles, and gestures • Attempts to communicate surprisingly successful between humans and dolphins • Communication and Intelligence • Dolphins can handle human language, word order, pronouns • Intelligence and Tool Use • Evidence that some dolphins use natural objects as tools • Dolphin Emotions • We can only infer inward state from outward behavior • Dolphins change behavior when suffering loss • Also respond to human emotional changes • The Sonic World of the Dolphin • Use sounds to make sense of the world around them • Have within them the equivalent of a “sonar” system • Reality in a Sonic World • Dolphins can take in more sensory information • Ability to see though objects • Sense pregnancy in humans • Sonic sense may also be able to know each other’s emotions • Different Realities/Different Concepts/Different Intelligence • Dolphins live in a very different geographic and conceptual world • Dolphin knowledge would be focused around memory • Dolphin intelligence would be about knowledge and interpersonal skills • Is a Dolphin a Person? • A person is alive • Dolphins are alive • A person is aware • Dolphin behavior suggests a significant level of awareness • A person feels positive and negative sensations • Dolphins appear to feel pain and pleasure • A person has emotions • Dolphin brain has a limbic system—the part of the brain that generates emotions • Emotional traits combine to form “dolphinalities”

 

 

Summary

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• A person has a sense of self • Five grounds for believing that dolphins have some concept of self • Signature whistle • Recognize themselves in a mirror • Problem solve in a way that requires a sense of self • Dolphins can handle pronouns • “Knowing” there’s someone looking back • A person controls its own behavior • An ability to act independently from instinct • Choice and Control Over Behavior • Evidence from a number of fronts that dolphins control their own behavior • Choice and Responsibility • Dolphins in the Bahamas choosing to interact with humans • Dolphins allow humans to observe aspects of their culture • A person recognizes other persons and treats them appropriately • Dolphins have long-standing and well-documented concern for other be- ings • A person has a variety of cognitive abilities. It is capable of analytical, conceptual thought. A person can learn, retain, and recall information. It can solve complex problems with analytical thought. And a person can communicate in a way that suggests thought. • Dolphins can communicate in some fashion, and some evidence suggests that it might be at a sophisticated level • Summing Up • Dolphins do quite well on the criteria for personhood • Strong case fro recognizing dolphins as non-human persons • Ethical Implications • Personhood conveys rights • Ethical treatment of Dolphins • Ethical treatment of other humans

 

 

Self Test

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Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1. An intelligent being created from technology; someone like the character “Data,” is probably an example of a _____.

A. human person B. nonhuman person C. human non-person D. nonhuman non-person

2. Dolphins are:

A. Mammals B. Fish C. Hominids D. Reptiles

3. The type of dolphin that most people are familiar with and on which the most re- search has been done is the _____.

A. dusky dolphin B. spinner dolphin C. bottlenose dolphin D. common dolphin

4. A dolphin deprived of contact with other dolphins _____.

A. becomes emotionally upset and may actually become sick and die because of this B. thrives because this is its preferred state C. begins singing highly complex “songs” that signal whether it is or is not interested in joining a dolphin community D. is no longer able to find enough food, and so it invariably becomes sick and dies

5. Which statement best describes the relationship between dolphin and human brains:

A. Dolphin and human brains could hardly be more different. B. Dolphin and human brains at first seem similar, but close examination reveals that humans have vastly superior intelligence. C. A dolphin’s brain probably resembles a human brain more closely than that of any other animal. D. A dolphin’s brain probably resembles a human brain more closely than that of any other animal, but close examination reveals that dolphins have vastly superior intel- ligence.

 

 

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6. Dolphins communicate by means of clicks and whistles.

A. True B. False

7. “Human” and “person” are different, but related, ideas. “Human” is a biological concept, while “person” is a _____________ concept.

A. Emotional B. Philosophical C. Scientific D. None of the above

8. Humans’ curiosity about dolphins can be traced back at least to ancient__________.

A. China B. Greece C. Rome D. Africa

9. The one dolphin sense that acts as both their eyes and ears in the water is like the modern human sonar system onboard submarines.

A. True B. False

10. Dolphins have a body temperature of _________ degrees.

A. 96.8 B. 98.6 C. 95.2 D. 96.2

 

 

Answer Keys

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Answers to Self Test

1. B

2. A

3. C

4. A

5. C

6. A

7. B

8. B

9. A

10. B

 

 

Notes

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Unit 4 Examination Instructions

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Introduction to Philosophy

The Unit Examination

The Unit Examination contains 25 questions, either multiple choice or true/false as well as a writing assignment.

Your grade on the examination will be determined by the percentage of correct answers. There is no penalty for guessing. The University utilizes the following grading system:

A = 90% – 100% correct B = 80% – 89% correct C = 70% – 79% correct D = 60% – 69% correct F = 59% and below correct

4 grade points 3 grade points 2 grade points 1 grade point 0 grade points

Completing Unit Four Examination

Before beginning your examination, we recommend that you thor- oughly review the textbook chapters and other materials covered in each Unit and following the suggestions in the “Mastering the Course Content” section of the course Syllabus.

This Unit Examination consists of objective test questions as well as a comprehensive writing assignment selected to reflect the Learning Objectives identified in each chapter covered so far in your textbook.

Additional detailed information on completing the examination, writ- ing standards, how to challenge test items and how to submit your completed examination may be found in the Syllabus for this course. If you have additional questions feel free to contact Student Services at (714) 547-9625.

 

 

Unit 4 Examination

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Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. According to Einstein, _________ will be perceived the same whether the observer is moving or not.

A. Space-time continuum B. String theory C. The speed of light D. Theory of Relativity

2. Einstein’s theory about the ______implies that reality has four dimensions, not three.

A. Space-time continuum B. String theory C. The speed of light D. Theory of Relativity

3. _______________is based on the claim that the ultimate building blocks of reality aren’t subatomic particles, but even smaller vibrating one-dimensional strings of energy.

A. Space-time continuum B. String theory C. The speed of light D. Theory of Relativity

4. The world of subatomic particles spawned a separate branch of physics called quan- tum mechanics.

A. True B. False

5. Imagine two twins. One gets onto a space ship and travels close to the speed of light for what the ship’s clocks record as a few months. The other twin remains on earth. When the space ship returns, there will be no difference in their ages.

A. True B. False

6. Imagine that you are standing still, while a friend of yours is on a train heading north. You see two lightning bolts strike the ground at the same instant – one to the north and the other to the south. Einstein would say that your friend on the train experi- ences things differently, seeing the northern bolt strike before the southern bolt.

A. True B. False

 

 

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7. Unlike Newton, Einstein believes that space is constant and absolute and cannot “bend.”

A. True B. False

8. One of the philosophical implications of Newton’s view of the universe is that human actions are totally free.

A. True B. False

9. In ______________ “conventional” morality, including stages three and four, we un- derstand right and wrong in terms of laws and the expectations of others.

A. Kohlberg’s B. Belenky’s C. Gilligan’s D. Perry

10. If we are at Perry’s second stage, “ unacceptable multiplicity,” and we hear two op- posite accounts of the causes of the Reformation, we would probably think that one, but only one, of the two accounts is true.

A. True B. False

11. In Belenky’s first stage, “____________,” knowledge is what some external authority says it is.

A. Constructed knowledge B. Received knowledge C. Subjective knowledge D. Procedural knowledge

12. In Belenky’s final stage, “_______________,” believing is more important than doubt- ing.

A. Constructed knowledge B. Received knowledge C. Subjective knowledge D. Procedural knowledge

 

 

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13. If we combine the two perspectives represented by Kohlberg and Gilligan, the prob- lem of the moral justification of an action becomes more difficult and involved.

A. True B. False

14. Sex refers to societal roles, whereas gender refers to biology.

A. True B. False

15. In Perry’s final stage, “relativism,” we generally believe that truth is a function of cultural norms.

A. True B. False

16. According to Gilligan, in the view of most women, “the moral person is one who can understand and act in accordance with philosophical principles such as Kant’s ‘cat- egorical imperative’”

A. True B. False

17. “Human” and “person” are different, but related, ideas. “Human” is a biological concept, while “person” is a _____________ concept.

A. Theological B. Philosophical C. Scientific D. Emotional

18. Humans’ curiosity about dolphins can be traced back at least to ancient__________.

A. Rome B. China C. Greece D. None of the above

 

 

Unit 4 Examination

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19. The one dolphin sense that acts as both their eyes and ears in the water is like the modern human sonar system onboard submarines.

A. True B. False

20. Dolphins have a body temperature of _________ degrees.

A. 98.6 B. 96.8 C. 90.2 D. 92.2

21. As far as the criteria for “personhood” are concerned, dolphins probably do possess “awareness” because the fact that they can be so easily trained shows that they are aware of the external world and able to interact with it.

A. True B. False

22. The fact that dolphins can perform leaps, dives and flips on cue from trainers: prove that dolphins are not intelligent enough to be persons, because persons would not perform such menial behaviors.

A. True B. False

23. In terms of the criteria for personhood developed in this chapter, dolphins, on bal- ance, did pretty well.

A. True B. False

24. Dolphins live very solitary lives.

A. True B. False

25. One reason for choosing dolphins for such an inquiry is that it lets us keep the con- cept “person” from being too heavily colored by the notion “human.” This is possible because there are substantial differences between humans and dolphins.

A. True B. False

 

 

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Written Assignment for Unit Four Be sure to refer to this course syllabus for instructions on format, length, and other information on how to complete this assignment. Please answer ONE of the following:

1. Explain Newton’s Law of Motion.

2. Describe Perry’s Stages of “Male” Knowing.

3. According to Kohlberg’s “Masculine” Ethics of Justice; there are stages of Ethical Development, describe these stages.

4. Explain the Philosophical criteria for personhood.

 

 

You Can Do It

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Congratulations! You have completed Unit 4. Now let’s sharpen our pencils for the Final Exam.

We are confident you will do well.

 

 

Final Examination Instructions

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About the Final Examination

After you have successfully completed all of the unit examinations and writing assignments, it will be time for you to take the final examination.

The final examination will be provided by student services only after you have completed all four unit examinations and submitted all four writing assignments.

Scheduling a Final Examination

Final examination requests can be submitted via U.S. mail, online through the Coast Connection student portal, or by calling the Testing Department at (714) 547-9625.

A final exam scheduling form is located on the last page of this study guide. Please fill out ALL required fields and mail it to the university.

If you would like to request a final exam online, log into the Coast Connection student portal and click on My Academic Plan. Select the course you are working on and submit the Final Exam Request form located at the bottom of the page. ALL INFORMATION MUST BE FILLED IN.

Final exams will only be sent if you have completed all four unit examinations and submitted all four writing assignments.

Submitting Your Final Examination

Final Examinations can be submitted by mail, fax or online through the Coast Connection student portal.

After you have completed your exam, you or your proctor can fax it to the Grading Department at (714) 547-1451 or mail it to the university. When faxing exams, please do not resize your fax.

For online submissions, once you have logged into the student portal, click on My Academic Plan and select the course you are working on to complete the final examination. You must input the unique password that was sent to your proctor in order to unlock your final examination questions. Remember to keep a copy of your answers for your own personal records.

 

 

Final Exam Scheduling Form

GED 212 Introduction to Philosophy

The university requires all final examinations to be completed under the supervision of a proctor. Please provide information on your designated proctor. ALL information must be filled in; otherwise, your request will not be processed.

Date _____________________________ Student I.D. ______________________________________________

Student Name ________________________________________________________________________________

Address ______________________________________________________________________________________

City __________________________________________________ State _________________________________

Zip Code ________________ Country ____________________________________________________________

E-Mail Address _______________________________________________________________________________

Daytime Telephone _____________________________ Evening Telephone _____________________________

Course Information:

Course Number ___________ Course Title _______________________________________________________

Please send the Final Examination to:

Proctor’s Name _______________________________________________________________________________

Proctor’s Relationship to Student ________________________________________________________________

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City ______________________________ State _________________ Zip Code __________________________

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Daytime Telephone _________________________ Evening Telephone _________________________________

Student’s Signature ________________________________________________________________________

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