The Transtheoretical Model

The Transtheoretical Model

The transtheoretical model (TTM) is an integrative model that uses various stages of change to evaluate and promote health behavior change to at least 48 types of behavior patterns. These stages are:

  • Precontemplation: which is defined as the individual refusing to take action
  • Contemplation: which defined as the individual deciding to take action to change their behavior.
  • Preparation: This is defined as the individual taking action within a month towards the behavior change.
  • Action: which is defined as the individual making specific action to change their behavior. Maintenance: which is defined as the individual sustaining the action
  • Termination: where is defined as the individual achieving the behavior change and feeling zero temptation to return to the old behavior.

An example of utilizing this model is smoking cessation, drugs, and drinking abuse. A disadvantage of using this model is its lack of data produced on the significant prevention effects on preventing substance abuse among children because the TTM does not apply to children and adolescents effectively. The strength is the model’s ability to promote behavior change for 12 to 48 different behavioral conditions, such as weight control, safer sex, smoking cessation, and mammography screening, and more (Fertman, 2017; Hashemzadeh et al., 2019).

The theory of planned behavior (TPB)

The theory of planned behavior (TPB) focuses on perceived control over a certain behavior for situations where an individual might not have complete control over their own behavior. TPB focuses on attitudes that are determined by the individuals’ beliefs about the outcome of behavior and subjective norms, which is determined by the person’s normative belief and the motivation that comes with the belief (Fertman, 2017).

The model that best supports My program and planning project

The model that best supports my program and planning project is the transtheoretical model (TTM). This is because my program and planning project is focused on diabetes control and prevention in underdeveloped populations and this project requires a change of behavior that will go through the stages of the TTM with the goal of termination.




Fertman, C. I., & Allensworth, D. D. (Eds.). (2017). Health promotion programs: From theory to practice (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Hashemzadeh, M., Rahimi, A., Zare-Farashbandi, F., Alavi-Naeini, M. A., & Dael, A. (2019). Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavioral Change: A Systematic Review. Iranian Journal Of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 24(2), 83-90. Doi






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