Tissues Organs and Organ Systems Paper

Tissues Organs and Organ Systems Paper

Tissues, Organs, & Organ Systems:
Characteristics & Organization
Objectives
• Review the various types of animal tissues and determine their composition and
function.
• Discuss the organ systems, the organs that comprise them, and their functions.
Introduction
The formation of an animal depends on a hierarchy of organization: individual cells form
specialized structures known as tissues; tissues form organs; organs form organ systems;
ultimately, multiple organ systems integrate and a complex individual results. This lab
begins with tissues. Using an online resource, you will investigate each of the four distinct
tissue types. You’ll learn about their specific composition and the diversity of their
functions, which range from forming the lining for body cavities to conveying electrical
signals.
Organs are the next level of organization beyond tissues in the organizational hierarchy of
the body. An organ is a structure that contains at least two different types of tissue
functioning together for a common purpose. There are many different organs in the body:
the liver, kidneys, heart, even your skin is an organ. In fact, the skin is the largest organ in
the human body and provides us with an excellent example for explanation purposes. The
skin is composed of three layers: the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous layer. The
epidermis is the outermost layer of skin. It consists of epithelial tissue in which the cells
are tightly packed together providing a barrier between the inside of the body and the
outside world. Below the epidermis lies a layer of connective tissue called the dermis. In
addition to providing support for the skin, the dermis has many other purposes. The
dermis contains blood vessels that nourish skin cells. It contains nerve tissue that
provides feeling in the skin. And it contains muscle tissue that is responsible for giving you
‘goosebumps’ when you get cold or frightened. The subcutaneous layer is beneath the
dermis and consists mainly of a type of connective tissue called adipose tissue. Adipose
tissue is more commonly known as fat and it helps cushion the skin and provide protection
from cold temperatures.
Organ systems are composed of two or more different organs that work together to provide
a common function. There are 10 major organ systems in the human body.
Laboratory Activities
Exercise 1: An Investigation into Tissues
Protocol:
Use your text book to review information about the following types of tissues. As you do so
please answer the questions below.
• Epithelial Tissue
• Connective Tissues
• Muscle Tissues
o Skeletal
o Cardiac
o Smooth
• Nervous Tissues
. The answers to these questions will be the basis of your grade for this section of the lab
exercise.
Questions:
An Introduction to Animal Tissues:
1. What are the four basic types of animal tissue?
2. How do tissues relate to organs?
Interpreting Sections:
3. Explain how a cross section differs from a longitudinal section.
4. If you look only at a single cross, longitudinal or oblique section of an organ,
can you get a complete sense of what that organ looks like? Explain.
Epithelial Tissues:
5. What is the significance of a basement membrane?
6. How do the cross sections of epithelial cells aid in classifying the different
types of these cells? Provide two examples to illustrate.
7. Identify the primary functions of epithelial tissue.
Connective Tissues:
8. How does the composition of connective tissue differ from epithelium?
9. Which connective tissue has a liquid matrix? (You can either do a further
investigation of this section of this lab to find the answer, or use your textbook.)
10. Identify the primary functions of connective tissue.
Muscle Tissues:
11. What features are common to all three types of muscle tissues?
12. What’s another word for muscle cells?
13. Which of the three muscle types appear to be striped?
14. Which of the three muscle types has/have cells that branch?
15. Identify the primary functions of muscle tissue.
Nervous Tissues:
16. When you stub your toe, which type of neuron would convey that information
to the brain?
17. If you touch a hot stove, which type of neuron would cause you to pull your
hand away from the heat?
18. Identify the primary function of nervous tissue.
Exercise 2: Human Body Systems Review
Protocol:
This activity is designed to help you identify human organ systems, and describe their
functions. In addition, it will be important to understand and describe the types of
interactions among organ systems in humans. Use your textbook and lecture notes to fill
in the chart below. The first system has been done for you to serve as an example.
System Structures Function(s) Interactions w/ Other
Systems
Circulatory Heart, arteries,
veins, blood
Transport
materials around
the body
1. Works with
respiratory system,
as it carries O2 and
CO2 between cells
and lungs
2. Carries nutrients
from digestive
system to cells
3. Carries hormones
from the endocrine
system to the body
Lymphatic
Respiratory
Urinary
Digestive
Skeletal
Muscular
Nervous
Male
Reproductive
Female
Reproductive

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